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660 terms

BIO 192 Final Review

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What sensory systems receive signals?
Mechano-receptors include touch, wind, sound
Chemo-receptors include smell, taste
Electro-receptors include light, heat, energy
Sensory Process
Stimulus to sensory neuron
Transduction of energy from stimulus into GP
Transmission of the AP that develops to the CNS
Interpretation of the impulses are qualitatively alike - it's the brain that perceives.
Lateral lines in fishes allow fish to sense objects that reflect pressure waves
By water pressure waves the fish stimulates with pulses.
Hair is a simple solution to many things
Otoliths above hair cells in vertebrates
Tympanum or the mechanism for hearing has evolved many times in animals
Ex. frogs, bats, katydids all different
Loudness depends on the number of hair cells stimulated inside inner ear by sound.
Bats, crustaceans and whales
use sound as radar to determine distance by knowing how long it should take a sound to return to them once it is sent out.
Ampullae are bulbs at the end of the semi circular ear canal
Involved with balance and angular motion.
Chemo-receptors
Contain proteins that bind with chemo-receptors causing depolarization of sensory neurons.
Mollusks, Annelids, Arthropods and Vertebrates developed image forming eyes:
Independently although general design is the same.
Rods
Detect low light and require much more of it to activate the AP
Fovea
Area of keenest vision and require bright light. Only cones and diurnal vertebrates have.
Nocturnal animals often lack cones
See in black and white and use only rods because of low light.
Other sensory modes humans don't have:
Heat sensing organs in pit vipers
Electrical sensing organs in sharks
Some fish navigate using electrical pulses. Electric eels stun food.
Homeostasis
Mainenance of constant internal state in organisms.
Essential for proper functioning ranges of pH, temperature, solute concentration.
Challenged by metabolic needs/bi products and by changes in external environment.
Thermoregulation
Radiation - electromagnetic
Conduction - direct transfer between objects
Convection - movement of gas/liquid
Evaporation - energy needed to transfer from liquid to gas phase.
Warm and cold blooded are outdated terms because
Animals once considered "warm blooded" may not always retain warm temperature.
Animals once considered "cold blooded" may have warm blood at some times.
Endo and Ecto define the source of the heat
Ectotherm
Regulate body temperature to external environment.
Insects, reptiles, amphibians, some fish.
Endotherms
Produce heat metabolically and stay within an internally determined range. Birds, mammals, some reptiles and insects. Crocodiles and bees.
Countercurrent blood flow
Wolf example
Blood going to and from the heart is positioned near each other, retains/gains temperature.
Torpor
Temporary, daily temperature reduction during periods of inactivity. Hummingbirds, bats
Hibernation
Seasonal reduction in metabolism concurrent with scarce food and cold temperature.
Osmotic Balance
Another form of homeostasis, water balance.
Fluids inside are isotonic with sea water
Osmoconformer in marine invertebrates and cartilagineous fishes.
Most vertebrates regulate blood osmolarity to achieve constancy internally.
Osmoreguators Water is lost from respiration, evaporation and excretion while water is brought in from drinking, food and biproduct of Calvin Cycle.
Protonephridium with flame cells
Cells in flatworms that remove metabolic waste using cilia to create a current through tubes.
Nephridium
Network of tubes with cilia draw water through the system
Malpighian tubules
Insects.
Free floating tubes in body cavity that transport and filter into open circulatory system.
Vertebrate kidney in fish
Marine - smaller, urine more concentrated.
Constantly drinking water because salt content outside is so high. Salt and ions are excreted via the gills.
Freshwater - larger, urine more dilute because they must remove water constantly to keep blood solutes higher as well as transport ions into body.
Cartilaginous fish kidney
isotonic because they retain high levels of urea (100 times more than mammals)
Amphibian and reptile kidney
kidney is similar to freshwater fish in amphibians.
Reptile kidney varies based on environment.
Mammal and bird kidney
Produce urine more concentrated than blood plasma and allow more water to be retained.
Nitrogenous Wastes
Concentrated toxins.
Challenge organisms trying to retain water.
Bony fishes remove waste.
Mammals, amphibians and cartilegenous fish convert and dilute waste.
Reptiles, birds and insects convert wastes to uric acid.
Uric acid
Reptiles, birds and insects as a non-soluable crystal that doesn't weigh as much as liquid.
Mammalian Kidney
Regulates water and removes waste
Filters and recovers water
Glomerulus and Bowman's Capsule
Osmoregulation and recovery of water
Blood enters the mammalian kidney at the
Glomerulus or Bowman's capsule which filters and removes water and small molecules from blood. Filtration continues to proximal convoluded tubual.
Higher concentration in the outer medulla pulls water out
Lower concentration in the outer medulla pushes water in
Nephron loop length
determines how much water is kept in or out. Longer loop means more water is pulled back.
Ascending loop impermeable to water and solutes
but can actively transport them by gradients
Final urine concentration depends on permeability of walls and collecting ducts.
ADH hormone controls when blood osmotic pressure is low ADH is released and increases permeability of ducts (to get rid of water) when blood osmotic pressure is high thirst is stimulated and more water is reabsorbed as urine becomes more concentrated.
Overhydration
less ADH
Solutes outside of collecting ducts cause more water to leave via urine
Final concentration of urine is established in distal loop.
Dinosaur Lineages
Dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds make up the Archosaur lineage of reptiles.
Saurischians
Sauropods and theropods
Ornithiscians
Ankylosaurs
Stegosaurs
Ceratopsians
Hadrosaurs
Class Aves are best defined as
Feathered amniotes (or glorified dinosaurs)
Birds
Thoracic vertebrae are fused
Bones are laced with cavities
One way airflow
similar development with reptiles (amniotic egg)
Feathers and flight
Endothermy
Synapsid skulls indicate pelycosaurs of the triassic period were forerunners of:
Mammals
Features of mammals
Hair
Mammary Glands
Endothermy
Placental reproduction (most)
Specialized teeth
Adaptations for herbivory
Hooves and horns
Primates
Grasping fingers and toes
Binocular Vision
Promisians
Nocturnal tree dwellers like lemurs
New World Monkeys
Tree dwellers
Prehensile tail (found in South America)
Old World Monkeys and Apes
Ground and tree
No prehensile tail
Bipedalism in Hominids
Skull inferior
Spine S shaped
Shorter Arms
Shaped pelvis
Femur angled in
Chimpanzee
Skull posterior
Spine slightly curved
Longer Arms
Longer pelvis
Femur angled out
Molecular evidence shows hominids did not evolve from chimpanzee
True
Out of Africa three times
Neanderthal to Europe
Java man Australia
Peking man to Asia
Hydrostatic
Earthworm
Joints and skeletal movement
Ball and socket - hip
Hinge - finger
Gliding - spine
Combination - jaw
Smooth muscle tissue is
Unstriated
Long
Single nucleus
Slow & autonomic control
Cardiac muscle tissue is
Striated
Shorter
Single nucleate
Fast & autonomic control
Cells function as a single myocardium
Skeletal muscle tissue is
Long
Multiple nuclei cells
Fast & voluntary control
Thin actin filaments and thick myosin filaments don't contract during muscle movement, they:
Slide - Overlap during contraction of myofibrils
Myofibrils are long tubes packed inside of muscle membranes made of myofilaments
Contract and shorten during movemen
Z-lines
Small protein disk anchors Actin myofilaments
During muscle contraction Z lines move toward center of sarcomere
Sarcomere
Repeating structures between Z lines
Energy for muscle contraction comes from:
Free ATP
Glycogen
Blood glucose
Anaerobic glycolysis
Motor proteins
Convert chemical energy of ATP into mechanical energy during cross bridge cycle.
Cross-bridge cycle
Conversion of chemical ATP ino mechanical energy.
Energized state
Myosin head links to actin
Cross bridge forms
ADP + P release as actin is pulled forward
ADP + P link back to myosin as ATP which causes actin to release.
Hydrolysis (cleavage) of ATP to ADP+P returns to original shape.
Ca++ Excitation contracting coupling
Tropomyosin regulated
Toponin regulates
Together are called the Toponin and Tropomyosin Complex
When nerves signal muscle contraction Ca++ is released exposing binding sites for Myosin.
Nerves stimulate contractions when motor neurons deliver electro-chemical impulses to nerves.
ACh is released across synapse and stimulates muscle to produce an electro-chemical response
Motor units vary in size and have an:
All or nothing response
Are set of muscle fibers innervated (synapse forms) by all the axonal branches of a motor neuron plus the motor neuron itself.
Two factors that influence motor units
Number of muscle fibers each muscle unit contracts
The number of motor units recruited
True or False: Sarcomeres are the organelles responsible for the release of Ca++ into muscle tissue during a muscle contraction
False - it's the sarcoplastic reticulum. Sarcomeres are not an organelle.
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Sensory or afferent neurons detect and transmit to brain
Motor or efferent neurons take message from brain to somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Neurological cells are Scwann and Oligodendrocites
Responsible for the myelin sheath around axon of some neurons.
Promote salatory transmission of action potentials along axons.
First event in axon of neuron stimulated to produce an action potential:
Voltage gated ion channels in the cell membrane open, allowing Na+ ions to enter the cell and initiate depolarization.
Resting membrane potential is the electrical gradient between a neuron at rest and its surrounding environment.
True
A threshold of depolarization must be reached before an action potential is initiated in a neuon.
True
During an action potential the magnitude of depolarization is unaffected by stimulus intensity.
True
Once initiated an action potential moves along the axon like a self-propagating wave.
True
Fixed anions are less concentrated inside a neuron than in the surrounding enviornment
False - they are more concentrated inside a neuron than surrounding environment.
What influences membrane potential?
Sodium potassium pumps, ion channels
Resting membrane potential is
-70 mV
Every 3 Na+ in
2 K+ out but Na+ has no net movement because the anions like K+ and concentration gradient lets it back through.
Salatory Conduction
Occurs along an axon with mylenated sheath by jumping nodes of ranvier and minimizing the amount of charge change required.
Conduction velocity
Function of axon diameter and presence or absence of mylen sheath.
Synapse
space between neuron communication with other cell types.
Intercellular junction with dendrites
Intercellular juntion with muscle cells
Intercellular junctions with gland cells
May be electrical or chemical
Signals and muscle contractions are all just
Cascade reactions regulated by enzyme digestion and re-uptake of neurons.
Phylogenetic Tree
Tissues
Protostome and Deuterostome
Segmentation
Molting (ecdysis)
Water Vascular System
Features of Animals
Multicellular heterotrophs
No cell walls
Active movement (in many)
Diverse in form and habitat
Sexual reproduction (in many)
Similar embryonic development across taxa
Tissues (in most)
Parazoans and Eumetazoans
Parazoans don't have tissues and are cell aggregates.
Phylum Porifera are Parazoans.
Eumetazoans have tissues and include all the other animals (most)
Phylum Cnidaria are Radiate Eumetazoans.
Phylum Ctenophora have showed evidence of bilateral symmetry.
Protostome
Most bilateral
Spiral cleavage
Mouth
Deuterostome
Echinoderms & Chordates
Radial cleavage
anus
Body cavities have played a pivotal role in evolution and animal complexity, why are they not defining characteristics on the phylogenetic tree?
They aren't very informative about evolutionary relationships.
Bilateral Symmetry has ______ tissue layers and is triploblastic.
3 (Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
Hydrozoa
Both
Scyphozoa
Medusa
Anthozoa
Polyp
Phylum Ctenophore
No polymorphisms
Phyla
Porifera
Cnidaria
Ctenophora
Bryozoa
Platyhelminthes
Mollusks
Annelids
Nematode
Arthropoda
Echinodermata
Chordata
Bilaterian Acoelomates
Platyhelminthes have a digestive, exretory and nervous system.
Turbellarians are bilaterian acoelomates
Pseudocoelomates
Phylum Nematoda
Pseudocoelomate evolutionary history
More than once
Segmentation evolutionary history
More than once
Coelomate Invertebrates
Annelida and Mollusca
Body plan of mollusks
Foot
Mantle
Gills
Shell
Radula (most)
Annelida and Mollusca larvae are both
Trochophore larvae
Characteristics of Arthropods
Jointed appendages
Chitin exoskeleton
Tagmata
Open circulatory system
Two-stranded ventral nerve
Compound eyes
Variable excretory system
Malpighian tubules are found in
Insects, chelicerates and myriapods
Arachnids have
2 tagmata
Chelicerae
1 pair of pedipalps
4 pairs of walking legs
Chelicerates
Xiphosura
Arachnidia
Crustaceans
Decapods
Copepods
Amphipods
Isopods
Myriapods
Chilipods
Diplopods
Hexapoda
Insects
Insects
Each thoracic segment has one pair of legs
Ecretion of nitrogenous waste is achieved via malpighiantubules
Wings, when present are located on the second and third thoracic segments only
Insects must molt to grow
A chitinous exoskeleton covers the body
Crustacea
Shrimps, lobsters, crayfish and barnacles
Jaws are mandibles for chewing
Chephalothorax & abdomen
10 pairs of jointed apendages
Breathe through gills
Evolutionary split between protostomes and deuterostomes
Echinoderms and Chordates are the only deuterostomes with radial cleavage.
Phylum Echinodermata
Water Vascular System
Bilateral symmetry until adults
Nerve ring with 3 layers but no brain
Epidermis over endoskeleton of ossicles
Four hallmark features of Phylum Chordata
Hollow dorsal nerve cord
Notochord
Pharyngeal gill slits
Post anal tail
Features of Vertebrates
Vertebral column (in most) replaces the notochord
Cranium encases brain
Neural Crest
Complex internal organ systems - closed circulation
Pharyngeal gill slits become feeding instead of respiration
Endoskeleton completely within the body
Endoskeleton development
Ossification - from cartilage to bone
Five features of fishes
Internal gills
Jaws & paired appendages
Vertebral column
Single loop blood circulation (only in fish)
Nutrient deficiencies
Extinct fishes
Placoderms, Ostracoderms, Acanthodians
Agnathans
Jawed fishes
Myxini (hagfishes)
Cephalospidomorphi (lampreys)
Chondrichthyes
Cartilaginous fishes
Sharks
Oil in liver
Do not have a muscular operculum
Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii
Bony fishes
Tetrapods
Have legs in their ancestry
Lobe-finned fishes linked by fossil Tiktaalik
Have evolved more than once
Amphibian Features
Legs
Lungs (most)
Cutaneous respiration (only amphibians)
Double loop blood circulation
3 chambered heart (most)
Reptile Features
Amniotic egg (mammals and birds)
Dry, water tight skin (not cutaneous)
Thoracic breathing
Spore versus Seed
Spores are single celled and haploid.
Seeds are multicelled and diploid with a protective coat.
Bryophytes
Liverworts
Hornworts
Mosses
Characteristics of Bryophytes
Non Vascular
Small and herbacious
Gametophyte, haploid one n generation is dominant.
Require water to reproduce
Tacheophytes
Lycophytes
Ferns
Whiskferns
Horsetails
Characteristics of Tracheophytes
Carboniferous period: 360 - 290 MYA
Vascular tissues
Lignin in cell walls
Ariel portions are cuticle and stomata
Sperm have flagella and require some water to reproduce
Sporophyte, diploid, two n generation becomes dominant generation
Which of the following adaptations of land plants distinguish them from their algal ancestors?
(c) Embryo stage in their life cycle
(c) Vascular tissues
Prokaryotes
3.5 - 3.8 BYA
Live everywhere
Most abundant organisms
Prokaryote Classification
Molecular approach
Diverse
DNA nucleotide sequences
Many unknown species
Most bacteria are unknown (not cultured)
Prokaryote Structure
1 - 5 micrometers
3 basic shapes - rod, spheres/ovals, spirals
Unicellular
Cynobacteria may be in colonies with a biofilm of polysaccarides
Cyanobacteria Colonies
True colonies are permanent groups
Identical
2 + specialized
if cells in a colony are separate they can survive
Most bacteria have cell walls for:
Shape
Protection
Prevent bursting
Archaea vs. Bacteria cell walls
Archaea: cell walls are various cell walls
Bacteria: cell walls are peptidoglycan, long sugar chains
Gram (+) positive
Thick peptidoglycan llayer and plasma membrane. Penicillan blocks layer linking so the stain gets in.
Domain Bacteria are:
Prokaryotes that live in normal environments. Include traditional bacterias.
Domain Archaea
Prokaryotes that live in very extreme environments. Includes halophiles, thermophiles, extremophiles and methanogens.
Kindoms inside of Domain Eukarya
Protista
Fungi
Viridiplantae
Animalia
Characteristics Domain Archaea
Unicellular (circular DNA) extremophiles
No nuclear envelope
No peptidoglycan in cell walls
Lipid structure is different
Genes may have introns
+1 or more RNA polymerases
Methanogen
Members of Domain Archaea
Methane.
Anaerobic only.
Live in swamps, marshes and intestines.
Extremophiles
Members of Domain Archaea
Thermophiles (cold/heat adapted)
Halophiles (salt)
pH tolerant
Pressure tolerant
Non-extreme archae
Members of Domain Archaea
Live in the same environment as bacteria.
Distinguished from bacteria by DNA sequences.
Domain Bacteria
Unicellular (circular DNA)
Cell walls have peptidoglycan
Single RNA polymerase
No introns
Cyanobacteria
Photosynthetic bacteria
Characteristics of Domain Eukarya
Nuclear envelope
Chromosomes
Membrane bound organelles
Cytoskeleton
Molecular bases sequences in Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related than Bacteria and Eukarya.
True
Kingdom Protista
Domain Eukarya
Most are unicellular
Paraphyletic
Kingdom Fungi
Heterotrophic
Decompose by secreting enzymes
Most multi-cellular
Non-motile
Indeterminant growth if resources allow
Kingdom Viridiplantae
Photosynthetic
Autotrophic
Multi-cellular (most excluding green algae)
Indeterminant growth if resources allow
Kingdom Animalia
Multi-cellular
No cell walls
Heterotrophic
Digest food by ingesting
Determinant growth
Mobile
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes have:
Sexual Reproduction (meiosis)
Multi-cellular
Compartmentalized
Endosymbiotic Theory
Energy producing "mitochondria"
Photosynthetic "chloroplasts"
Engulfed but not digested
Monophyletic (all)
A group that contains most recent common ancestor and ALL it's decendants.
A "clade" is monophyletic.
Paraphyletic (not all)
A group that contains most recent common ancestor but NOT ALL its decendants.
Polyphyletic (none)
A group that does not contain most recent common ancestor.
What are key events in the history of earth?
Appearance of prokaryotes - 3.5 BYA
Appearance of eukaryotes - 1.8 BYA.
Multi-cellular organisms.
Colonization of land.
Fossil Records:
Reveal history of life on earth.
Are used to determine age
Taxonomy
The science of identifying, naming and classifiying organisms.
Binomial Naming
Identifying an organism by a series of two latin names. Accredited to Linnaeus 1700's.
Taxa
Groups that become increasingly more inclusive.
Categories of Taxonomy
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Biological Species Concept
Biological species concept: a population or groups of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring.
Does the biological Species Concept work in all situations?
No - mules are examples of members of different species that produced offspring but the offspring are infertile.
Limitations of the Biological Species Concept:
extinction of life forms
reproduction among asexual organisms
some populations interbreed very rarely and can produce fertile offspring. Example dogote.
Phylogenetic Species Concept:
A species is a group of organisms with a unique genetic history. Within a species, the organisms maintain a close resemblance based on a common ancestry.
Which better defines a species, biological species concept or phylogenetic species concept?
Pylogenetic species concept compares molecular evidence.
What categories are used to group species into a specific taxon?
Species originate from ancesteral form
How species are grouped should reflect their place within the evolutionary tree.
Phylogenetic classifications reflect:
evolutionary relationships between organisms by classifying how long ago they separated from a common ancestor.
Corn and roses
More features are similar, closer common ancestor.
Major groups of organisms
Domain Eubacteria - ex. e.coli, cyanobacteria
Domain Archea- Methanogens, Extremophiles, non-extreme Arechea
Domain Eukarya
Characteristics of Prokaryotes
Unicellular, no organelles, no nuclear envelope, and a circular DNA structure.
Characteristics of Eukaryotes
Nuclear envelope, chromosomes, membrane bound organelles, cytoskeleton.
Two species concepts:
Biological Species Concept (can interbreed)
Phylogenetic Species Concept (unique genetic history)
If scientists built a protobiont with self-replicating RNA and metabolism, would that prove that life began in this manner?

(A True)
(B False)
False - It is a possibility, not a guarantee.
What is life?
Cellular Organization
Sensativity
Growth
Development
Reproduction
Regulation
Homeostasis
Heridity
Which domains are Prokaryotic organisms?
Domain Eubacteria
Domain Archaea
Which domains are Eukaryotic organisms?
Domain Eukarya
What are the four kingdoms of domain Eukarya?
Protista
Fungi
Viridiplantae
Animalia
Viruses are not living organisms because _________________
They require a host to reproduce and have no metabolic system of their own.
Panspermia
The theory that life came from another place.
Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers
Miller and Urey in 1955.
Simulated early earth conditions resulting in combination of amino acids and nitrogenous bases to form polymers.
Pre-cell formation
Spontaneous lipid/protein membranes formed around free floating molecules. The free floating molecules that were trapped were termed protobionts.
Abiotic synthesis of polymers
Oh hot surfaces, abiotic monomers can form polymers spontaneously.
Self-replicating molecules
May have been RNA.
The appearance of oceans allowed initial growth of these inorganic molecules:
carbon dioxide
nitrogen gas
In favorable conditions these more complex molecules may have formed in early oceans:
Methane
Ammonia
Eukaryotes are more closely related to ______________ than to Eubacteria..
Archaea
Fungi are more closely related to _______________ than to plants.
Animals
S-layer:
A rigid layer outside of the cell wall, common in Archaea.
Capsule
Gelatinous layer outside the cell wall.
Pili
Surface appendages
Flagellar action in bacteria
thinner than that of eukaryotes and is made of the protein flagellin.
Chemotaxis:
Cell receptors detect and cause cell movement to and from a stimulus such as light, food, oxygen.
Plasma Membrane in Archaea
Ether bonds between glycerol.
Plasma Membrane in Bacteria and Eukaryotes
Ester bonds between glycerol.
Internal membranes
In folded regions for photosynthesis and/or respiration that allow for generation of ATP. (chemiosmosis proton gradient)
Genome:
Double stranded DNA molecule in ring form. (genophore or bacterial chromosome)
Plasmid
Small rings of DNA that are not found in all Prokaryotes but may provide some benefit or advantage.
Prokaryotic Ribosomes
Smaller, different structure than Eukaryotes. Protein and RNA. Some antibiotics can tell the difference and block protein production only in prokaryoitc cells.
Enzymes for respiration in Eukaryotes are in the ____________________. In prokaryotes they are attached to in folded regions of the _______________ ___________________.
Mitochondria
Plasma Membran
Prokaryotic Reproduction
Binary fission produces identical clones. Meiosis does not occur in bacteria.
Endospores
May form during Prokaryotic reproduction if the cell can't grow. Very tough outside covering protects a daughter cell until conditions are favorable.
Genetic Diversity in Prokaryotes
Most commonly mutation at a much higher rate than eukaryotic cells.
Horizontal Gene transfers include:
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction
What are the steps for Binary Fission?
Replication of bacterial chromosome.
Daughter chromosomes bind to plasma membrane.
Cell growth results in separation of chromosomes.
Photoautotrophs
Nutrition and reproduction with organic materials. Example cyanobacteria.
Chemioliautotrophs
Oxidation of inorganic materials. Example Nitrification, sulfobulose.
Photoheterotrophs
Light energy pumps protons and forms ATP but Carbon comes from organic molecules. Example halophiles in Archaea.
Chemoheterotrophs:
Most prokaryotes, from organic molecules.
Saprobes obtain energy by:
dead/decaying materials
Parasites obtain energy by
living hosts, pathogenic or commensual relationship.
Mutualism
Nutrients from a host but both host and bacteria benefit from the relationship.

Example Nitrogen Fixation for plans.
Prokaryotic relationships to oxygen
Obligate aerobes: NEED oxygen (salmonella)
Faculative Anaerobes: USE oxygen but OK without (e. coli)
Obligate Anaerobes: KILLED by oxygen (methanogens)
Nitrogen Cycling
Some prokaryotes can convert gaseous Nitrogen into usable air for eukaryotes and others.

N2 NH3 NO2- NO3- N2
Prokaryotic mechanisms for causing disease:
Invade and colonize host tissue, tuberculosis (invasion)
Exotoxins, secreted outside the bacteria botulism and cholera
Endotoxins, protein that becomes part of the bacteria, salmonella
Prokaryotic organisms are ____________________ and break down organic materials.
Decomposers.

Useful for bioremediation and nitrogen metabolism.
Prokaryotes have symbiotic associates with _____________ ___________.
Gut bacteria to aid in digestion, a form of mutualism
Phytoplanktons
Prokaryotes important to photosynthetic organisms NEAR/ON ocean or water surface that are the base of the food chain.
What are Protists?
A paraphyletic group of eukaryotes that do not have features of animals, plants or fungi.
Protist Fossils have been found in rocks that are _______________
1.5 to 1.8 billion years old.
The first protists appeared after?
oxygen became abundant in atmosphere and oceans.
Fossil fuels like Oil/Natural gas are from ______________ fossils.
Protists. (organic matter into petroleum & natural gas)
Animals, fungi and some protists formed mitochondria by:
Ancestor eukaryote with an internal membrane absorbed an aerobic bacterium.
Some protists and all plants formed chloroplasts by:
"New" eukaryotic organism now containing mitochondria absorbed a photoshynthetic bacteria.
Heterogeneity of Protists: (what defines them)
Mode of Nutrition - photosynthetic or heterotrophic
Characteristics of the cell surface - may only have plasma membrane or a cell wall.
Mechanism of movement - motile or non motile
Body Structure - unicellular, colonial or multi-cellular forms.
Habitat:- moist soil, water or other organisms.
Reproduction - sexual or asexual.
Mechanisms of asexual reproduction in protists:
Spore formation
Binary Fission
Budding
Schizogony
Fragmentation
Shizogony
Nuclear divisions occur but cell doesn't divide right away. Cytoplasmic fragments form and then cytokinesis divides multiple cells at one time.
Three modes of Sexual Reproduction in Protists
Different from other eukaryotes
Haplontic - zygotic meiosis
Diplontic - gametic meiosis
Haplodiplontic - sporic meiosis, alternation of generations.
Diplontic
Animals, some protists.
Most cells are diploid and divide by mitosis.
Gametes are haploid and divide by meiosis
Antheridia and Oogonium
Location of gametes, diplontic with 2 nuclei
Haplontic
Reverse of diplontic life cycle.
Diploid 2n zygote divides by meiosis to produce haploid amoebas. The amoebas aggregate and migrate to become fruiting bodies. The fruiting bodies release spores which become amoebas. When those amoebas differentiate they may remain as amoebas or become gametes and form diploid zygote.
Haplontic Organisms
Most fungi and some protists. The only diplontic cell in the life cycle is the zygote. The dominant generation is haploid and only the haploid cells go through mitosis.
Haploid cells in diplontic life cycle undergo ___________________ but in a haplontic life cycle they must undergo ____________ which results in more cells.
Syngamy (fertilzation)
Mitosis
Only the _________________ zygote divides by meiosis in a haplontic life cycle.
2 n zygote forms the sporophyte which undergoes meiosis to form spores which are haploid.
Haploid zoospores are produced by ______________
Haplodiplontic life cycle example Brown Algae.
The classification of protists is a work in progress. Currently they are divided into several __________________.
Clades, that is monophyletic groups.
A clade may include one or more _____________-
Phylum
Diplomonads & Parabasalids
Protists.
Unique feature is the lack of enzymes of Kreb's cycle and electron transport chain.
Lack funtional mitochondria and use anaerobic respiration for energy.
Example of Diplomonads
Protists
Giardia. Water is filtered for, and has two nuclei.
Example of Parabasalids
Protists
Wavy shaped with undulating membranes including Trichomonas vaginalis an symbiotic association with bacteria inside a termite gut to digest cellulose (wood) products.
Features of Euglenozoa
Protists
Rod inside of flagella
Unicellular with 2 flagella
Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids
Protein bands beneath plasma membrane called pellicle
Mixotrophs - phytosynthesis and ingest food particles by phagocytosis
Are part of the plankton
Pellicle
Unique to Clade Euglenozoa of the protists. Protein bands beneath plasma membrane.
Plankton
microscopic organisms near the surface of oceans, lakes, ponds. Includes zoo plankton.
Kinetoplastids
Protists
Unicellular or colonial with at least one flagellum
Free living or parasitic
1 LARGE mitochondria named a kinoplastid
Example of a free living is Bodo
Example of a parasitic is tyrpanosomas the sleeping sickness and chagas. (Darwin may have died of chagas)
Clade Aveolata
Protists
Includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans and cilliates.
All have DNA sequence similarities
All have ALVEOLI, vesicles in common.
Dinoflagellates
Clade Aveolata, Protista
Cellulose cell walls-appear to have a belt of flagella
Chlorophyll a and c with carrotenoids.
Marine, responsible for red tides
Symbionts with coral animals for photosynthesis
Corals are very diverse but ______% have disappeared and another _____% are threatened by temperature or pH changes that alter the behavior of the dinoflagellates that form the symbiotic relationship with and are not as effective.
20% have disappeared
70% are threatened
Apicomplexans
Clade Aveolata, Protista
Parasites of animals
Protien Apical complex = unique cell organelles designed for invasion of host
Example is Plasmodium that causes malaria and is transported by mosquitoes of genus anopheles
Parasites reach the liver and reproduce then invade RBC
Symptom anemia
Ciliates
Clade Aveolata, Protista
Unicellular
Large number of cilia
2 nuclei, a macro and micro
Macro is for cell function
Micro is for reproduction
Live in moist ponds
Stramenophila
Protista
Includes Crysophyta, diatoms
and
Phaecophyta, brown algae
Phaecophyta are also known as __________ ___________ and are multicellular.
brown algae, such as kelp
Clade Stramenophila, Protista
Crysophyta are unicellular with silica cell walls and contain the _____________.
Diatoms
Clade Stramenophila, Protista
Oomycota
Water molds, white rusts, mildew.
Filamentous bodies that consist of hyphae (slender filamentous structures)
Parasites or saprobes
Used to be considered fungi
2 uneven flagella on motile spores called zoospores
Cause of potato blight
Clade Stramenophila, Protista
Brown algae formation:
Early eukaryotic cell with a cyanobacteria was consumed by a larger eukarytoic red algae.
Rodophyta
Red algae
Sister clade of Chlorophyta
Maintly multicellular
Used in lots of things such as sushi, processed foods like ice cream or toothpaste
Chl a, phycoerithrin and carotenoids
Protista
Choanoflagellida
Single celled or form colonies
Single flagellum surrounded by a collar "choano"
Have a kinase recptor like sponges do, probably a common ancestor of sponges and animals.
Closest to humans/animals relatives
Clade of protista
Protists without a clade
Unicellular heterotrophs with pseudopods
Rhizopoda - amoebas with no cell wall
Actinopoda/Radiolarians - psedopodia spike projections through exoskeleton
Foraminifera/forams - cell walls with organic and inorganic materials. Pseudopodia emerge through perforations of exoskeleton.
Actinopoda and Radiolarians have pseudopodia that are ____________________________ through the exoskeleton; while Foraminifera have pseudopodia that ___________________ of the exoskeleton.
Spike projections
perforations
Cellular Slime Molds
Protists with unicellular and aggregate forms including plasmodial slime mold.
The nucleus of _______________ divides several times without cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis)
Plasmodial Slime Molds, Protists without a clade
Ecological Roles of Protists
Algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems
Heterotrophic protists are part of the zoo-plankton
Some protists cause disease
Some protists are decomposers
General Characteristics of Fungi
Heterotrophs - decomposers, saprobes, parasites or mutualistc
Body Structure - unicellular or multicellular
Multicellular fungi are made of long filaments called ________________
Hyphae
Some hyphae are continuous while others are divided by _____________ (cell walls)
Septa, incomplete cross walls
Hyphae without septa are __________ and those with speta can have ______ nucleus per cell.
multinucleate or coenocytic
one or two
More than one nuclues per cell is also known as _____________
Dikaryotic
Monokaryotic are hyphae with _____________
Dikaryotic are hayphae with _______________
one
two
Dikaryotic may be either heterokayrotic or monokaryotic. The difference is________________
Heterokaryotic have nuclei from two individuals, homokaryotic have two nuclei from the same individual.
Mitosis in ______________ isn't followed by cell division.
fungi
Sexual reproduction in fugi:
dikaryotic stage of N + N occurs before fusion of 2 hyphae 2N
Most fungi have a ______________________ lifecycle.
Haplontic - that is the cells undergoing division through mitosis are haploid
Plasmogamy
Fusion of cytoplasm between hyphae of different mating types
Dikaryotic & Heterokaryotic stages have
2 nuclei that are genetically different
Karyogamy
Fusion of nuclei which produces a zygote with meiosis. Produces genetically different individuals
______________ descended from an aquatic, single celled, flagellated protist.
Fungi
Mycologists estimate there are about _________ _____________ species.
1.5 million
Microsporidia are:
Animal and insect parasites
Unicellular
Lack mitochondria, long thought to be protists
Blastocladiomycetes
uniflagellated in zoospores
some have haplodiplontic life cycle, that is both diploid and haploid can undergo mitosis.
are saprobes or parasites
Chrtridiomycota
Most are aquatic
flagellated spores called zoospores
mycelium or unicellular
decline in anphibians due to skin infection
Neocallimastigamycota
Digest plant cellulose/lignin in mammalian herbivore rumens
Genes for cellulose digestion by horizontal gene transfer from bacterial gene.
Mycelia form ______________ during sexual reproduction in fungi.
Gametangia
_______________ undergo plasmogamy to form ______________
Gametangia
Zygosporangium
When conditions are favorable the ______________ germinates (karyogamy) and meiosis occurs resulting in the formation of _____________.
zygosporangium
spores
Features of Zygomycota
Bread molds, Rhizopus
Monophyletic
May case damage to strawberries, fruits
single nucleus with a thick cell wall
Asexual reproduction produces identical
Sexual reproduction produces variation
Features of Glomeromycota
monophyletic fungi, only about 200 known.
only asexual reproduction.
intracellular associations with plant roots called arbuscular mycorrhizae by penetrating into plant roots to help the plant absorb water and nutrients.
Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
Common fungi and plant association-sagebrush
Increases the water and nutrient update of plant by increasing surface area - fungi gets sugars and carbons
Can increase plant growth by 3 to 4 times
Like plant steroids
Features of Basidiomycota
Mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs
Asexual by fragmentation or spore formation
Haplodiplontic - both haploid and diploid can undergo mitosis
Saprobes or parasites
Basidocarp is the ___________ of the mushroom that will eventually undergo karyogamy and form zygotes.
gills
The part of a basidiocarp that is visible above ground or would be consumed is the ______________
heterokaryotic or N + N stage
Basidiomycota include _________________, edible; ______________ poisonous; and _________________ hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Agaricus bisporus
Amanita phalloides (death cap) with ring and sock and has no antidote
Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) ibotenic acid causes hallocinogenic reaction
Plant pathogens such as rusts and smuts or wood rotting fungi are ___________________.
Basidiomycota
Features of Ascomycota
75% of all fungi
Morels, cup fungi, some yeasts, truffles
Asexual reproduction via conidiophores
Sexual reproduction via mycelia and a heterokaryotic stage
Mated hyphae are
Not diploid
Ascopspores are
Not dikaryotic
Ergot (LSD) Aspergillus, Tinea spp and Penicillium are all forms of _______________
Ascomycota
Features of Yeasts
unicellular fungi
asexual reproduction by binary fission or budding, an unequal form of binary fission.
There are different species of yeasts in different phyla of fungi
Baker's yeast (ascomycota) saccharyomyces cerevisae - oxidizes sugars to carbon dioxide when oxygen is present.
Pathogenic yeasts - Candida
Ascocarps have _________________ hyphae.
Heterokaryotic
Mutualistic associations of fungi
Neocallimastigamycota and ruminants
Mycorrhizae and plants
Ants and fungal symbiosis - leaf cutters maintain a fungal garden
Lichens - symbtiosis of photosynthetic microorganisms held by mesh of fungal hyphae
Often, in mutualistic associations of fungi known as lichens, the photosynthetic portion is _____________________ and the fungal component is _______________.
Ascomycota
Cyanobacteria or green algae
A. Fruiticose
B. Foliose
C. Crustose
Ecological roles of lichens
pioneer species on rocks or cleared soils
lichens with cyanobacteria also add Nitrogen to the soil
Evolutionary History of Kingdom Viridiplantae
1 BYA green algae and land land plants shared a common ancestor.
All plants are photoautotrophic - although not all photoautotrophs are plans.
land plants came from fresh water algae
land plants have adapted to terrestrial life - stomata, tracheids.
Haplodiplontic alternation of generations - diploid sporophyte (2N) and haploid gametophyte (N).
Evolutionary trend is to a shorter _______________ life cycle with a dominant ________________ cycle.
Gametophyte
Sporophyte
Kingdom Viridiplantae contains __________________ and land plants.
2 clades of green algae, chlorophytes and charophytes
Features of Chlorophytes
Unicellular, multicellular and colonial
Cellulose cell walls
Never made it to land
Chloroplasts analogous to land plant chloroplasts
Diverged from land plants 1 BYA
Members of Chlorophytes:
Chlamydomonas - unicellular
Volvox - colonial
Ulva - multicellular
Features of Charophytes
unicellular, colonial or multicellular
cellulose cell walls
all freshwater habitats
most closely resemble land plants DNA
plasmodesmata like land plants
All land plants evolved from charophyte species nearest is liverworts.
Land plant characteristics
multicellular eukaryotes
photosynthetic
protected embryo
structural, reproductive and chemical adaptations to land
haplodiplontic lifecycle
terrestrial habitats
more complex than algae
above and below ground organs different
need resources from above and below ground
most have vascular systems
cuticle protects from water loss
most have stomata
Stomata controls ______________ and is usually _________ during the daytime.
Carbon dioxide
Open during the daytime
Green moss has a dominant __________ generation while more evolved plants like corn have a dominant __________ generation.
gametophyte dominant
sporophyte dominant
Land plants or _________________________ include the Bryophytes (non vascular), Tracheophytes (vascular) and Seed plants.
embryophytes
Tracheids are a ____________ in seedless vascular plants
conducting cell
Three phyla of Bryophytes
Phylum Bryophyta, mosses.
Phylum Hepaticophyta, liverworts.
Phylum Anthoceroptophyta, hornworts
Phylum Bryophyta - all gametetes are photosynthetic but not all sporophytes are.
Mosses
NON phyotosynthetic sporeophyte pores like stomata but they don't close
gametophyte (N) are leaf-like structures with stem like axis and rhizoids
Archegonium (N) multi-cellular produce egg
Atheridium (N) swimming sperm
Zygote (2N) from fertilization develops into sporophyte
Humid, dry or artic.
BSC - biological soil crusts N fixation, mixture of organisms
Spagnum pea tmoss - fertilizer or soil
Phylum Hepaticophyta
Liverworts
HAS stomata and cuticle in 2N sporophyte
IS phytosynthetic sporeophyte - not free living
gametes flat and rhizoids one celled
sexual reproduction similar to mosses with dominant gametophyte
Asexual reproduction via Gemmae that are dispersed by raindrops.
Phylum Anthocerotophyta
Hornworts
gameteophyte similar to liverworts
sporophyte IS photosynthetic
HAS stomata and cuticle
Tropical forests
Summary of Bryophytes
Small, herbaceous
Gametes in all are photosynthetic but sporophytes in only liverworts and hornworts are synthetic. life cycle includes embryo stage
Different because they don't have tracheids
Different because they have dominant gametophyte (N)
Most live in humid climate but some can colonize dry areas
Features of Seedless Vascular Plants 2 phyla
Lycophyta the club mosses and Pterophyta the whisk ferns, ferns and horsetails.
Cell wall may have lignin
Aerial parts have a cuticle and stomata
Sperm have stomata
Form antheridia/archegonium and need water for sperm to swim. Seed plants do not have swimming sperm.
Dominant sporeophyte (2N)
Has vascular tissues, xylem and phloem
Dominated vegetation 360 - 290 MYA
Features of Lycophytes
Club mosses
Leaves with one vein
Sporeophyte 2N has photosynthetic microphylls
Sporangia form at the end of stems
Pterophyta
Sporangium produces spore mother cells 2N that undergo meiosis to form spores N.
Spores produce a bisexual gametophyte N with archegonia and antheridia.
Most ferns have __________________ "fronds"
Megaphylls
Most abundant living SEEDLESS vascular plant
1 cm to 25 meters tall
Mostly tropic, some dry
Asexual reproduction underground rhizomes
N fixation helps rice fields
Phylum ______________________, whisk ferns.
Pterophyta, whisk ferns
Leaves absent or very reduced
Phylum ________________ horsetails:
Pterophyta, horsetails
Have leaves but they are NON-photosynthetic
Stems ARE photosynthetic
Reproduction in Phylum Bryophyta, the mosses
Seedless Vascular Plans dominated the world during the ______________ period and are responsible for the most extensive ______________ deposits.
carboniferous period
coal deposits (fossil fuels)
Lycophyte sporangium:
A structure where meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop in club mosses.
The heterosporous condition in ferns is important in the evolution of ______________
Seeds
Seventeen Plant Nutrients
Macro: more than 1g/kg of plant dry matter C, O, H are obtained from air or water.
N, P, S, K, Ca, Mg are obtained from soil solution.
Also micro (don't need to know)
Functions of Essential Elements:
Molecules, enzyme activity and osmotic balance.
Nitrogen: Amino Acids, proteins nucleic acids
Phosphorus: ATP
Magnesium: Chlorophyll
Iron: chromosomes
Chlorine and Potassium: provide force for water to enter cell
Symptoms of mineral deficiency:
Localized Necrosis-low potassium (K) causes patches of dead tissue.
Chlorosis: low Nitrogen (N) causes yellow areas in leaves
Curling of leaves: Low Magnesium (Mg) causes leaves to curl.
Stunted growth/dwarf plants- low Calcium (Ca)
Soil characteristics
Provide plants with physical support, essential nutrients water, air.
Plants that get too much water __________________
don't get enough air for energy via aerobic respiration and die.
Top Soil Layer
Organic matter
Most important layer to sustain plant growth
Most susceptible to erosion
No-tillage agriculture to prevent bare soil and loss of topsoil.
Deeper soil layers:
Less organic matter and nutrients
Coarser particles
Soil Components
Organic matter from living and dead organisms, humus.
Organic matter improves soil structure and retention of cations.
Mineral particles - found in almost all soil
Sand - larger particles, aid in drainage.
Silt - medium particles, ideal balance between drainage and retention.
Clay - small particles, retention of water.
Pores are occupied by water or air.
Nutrient Cycles
Circulation of nutrients between living things and the environment.
Cycles are leaky
Loss of nutrients by burning or harvesting crops
Replenishment by Nitrogen fixation
Addition of fertilizers, immediate inorganic or longer term organic.
Carnivorous Plants
usually in swampy areas
Obtain nutrients like Nitrogen from insects
Venus fly trap
Characteritics of Seed Plants
Further reduction of gametophyte
Heterosporous, mega and micro spores.
Female gametophyte N is retained and supported by sporophyte 2N - the opposite of seedless plants.
Male gametophyte is pollen and can travel without water
Seed replaces spores as means of dispersing offspring
Gymnosperms
Dominated world's vegetation 245 to 60 MYA.
Naked Seeds
About 900 living species, mainly conifers
Dominate boreal forest
Four phyla
Phylum Coniferophyta
Pines, redwoods, cypress, firs, spruce
Stems have secondary growth - increased width lets them get taller and older
Costal redwood is 300 ft tall
Bristlecone pine is 4900 years old
Leaves like needles adapted to dry conditions
Sunken stomata
Timber, paper and resin are of economic importance
Pollen bearing cones and ovulate cones
Pollen are micro, ovulate are mega.
Microsporangium on pollen cones:
Occur in scales.
Produce many microsporantium mother cells 2N
Reach the ovulate cone and germinate producing a tube that carries two sperm cells. Do not have flagella.
Megasporangium on ovulate cones
Occur in scales.
Produce a nucellus or sporangium and a single megaspore mother cell 2N.
The 2N mother cell is retained and divides by meiosis.
3 of the 4 replicates become part of the integument and only a single haploid N megaspore survives.
Archegonium is where egg is produced
Once pollen tube grows long enough it will reach the egg and fertilize a zygote.
Integument of the ovule in Coniferophyta becomes the ____________ ____________.
seed coat
Seed coat has an extension ________________ and disperses by wind.
Wing
Phylum Cycadophyta
Cycads with palm like leaves and cones. Sperm HAVE flagella.
Phylum Genetophyta
Welwitschia, Ephedra.
Xylem has vessels and conducts elements to more quickly
Phylum Ginkophyta
Ginko bioloba
Only one living species
Has pollen but also has swimming sperm
All vascular plants have _________________
Tracheids.
A. Phylum Cycadophyta
B. Phylum Gnetophyta
C. Phylum Ginkophyta
Pathway of water and mineral movement in plants
Soil to root to stem to leaves to atmosphere.
Movement of organic molecules
Enter the roots dissolved in soil solution and somewhat controlled by the plasma membrane.
Phloem transport is from sources to sinks
Sources are places where molecules come in.
Sinks are places where substances go to.
Most water enters the plant through:
Root hairs and young portions of the root.
Water moves in between the root cells until it reaches the:
Xylem
The longest distance water moves is through the conducting elements of the:
Xylem
___ % of the water that enters the plant is lost to transpiration.
97 - 99%
Transpiration:
Helps to cool leaves
Prevents Excessive increase in leave temperature.
Factors that affect water movement:
Concentration of solutes inside the cell is higher than in the soil-causes water uptake by osmosis.
Water Potential
Sum of it's pressure potential and solute potential.
Water moves from areas of high water potential to low.
Pure water at atmospheric pressure has a ____________ water potential.
0. The Wp + Ws = 0.
Plant cells have negative water potential values.
Leaves have more negative value than roots because water moves from roots to leaves.
Movement between water from root to
leaf:
Adhesion - wet to dry polar attraction by H-bonds and minerals.
Cohesion - water to water, keeps water moving.
Dry areas create:
Negative pressure and pulls water molecules from roots to leaves.
Water is pulled from
The top, causing tension or negative pressure in the xylem. Water movement through xylem is passive.
Water movement through the xylem is:
Passive and driven by transpiration. As leaves lose water through stomata by diffusion they pull more up.
Stomata are
Open during the day
Light leads to:
Accumulation of solutes into guard cells increasing guard cell volume and opening stomata.
Under dry conditions this plant hormone triggers closure of the stomata:
ABA Abscisic acid
Light opens stomata
Dry conditions close the stomata
Movement of minerals
Minerals enter roots dissolved in soli solution.
Phloem transport
Organic molecules sucrose, amino acides and some hormones.
Movement of molecules through the phloem: mass flow
Substances move by a difference in hydrostatic pressure between source and sink.
Source is high pressure
Sink is low pressure
At a source solutes are:
loaded into the phloem.
At a sink solutes are:
unloaded
True or False: Sinks can be leaves or roots
True
Aphids have a stylet that reaches the
Pholem
During plant embryo development
The zygote undergoes unequal cell division to form two cells, top becomes ebryo and bottom becomes suspensor.
The suspensor
facilitates transport of nutrients to the plant embryo.
Plant embryo eventually absorbs the:
suspensor and breaks it down
Embro cell will go through different stages.
The apical basil pattern will be different on top than bottom.
Shoot Apical Meristem SAM
gives origin to the stems and leaves. The cotyledons, hypocotl, and RAM keep dividing and elongating to become root system.
Radial development pattern in plants
The protoderm, tissues outside the epidermis
The ground meristem, tissues inside the fleshy leaf part.
Procambium, xylem and phloem.
These give rise to the three tissue types in a plant:
Procambium
Xylem
Phloem
True of False: Not all organs are present until after germination.
True.
Triploid cells that form after fertilization of the polar nuculei divide to form the:
Endosperm
The endosperm is made of:
starch, lipids and protiens. It is the site of reserve materials.
Food storage in mature seeds is in:
A large endosperm. Corn
Food storage in some seeds is in:
Cotylydons with lots of reserves. Peanuts, peas.
Mature seeds have:
Seed Coat
Embryo
During maturation the seed loses water:
5-20% water content in mature seed compared with 80-90% in leaves.
Dry state causes cessation, stopping of growth called a quiescent state.
Quiescent State
Cessation of growth in dry conditions. Different seeds have different time periods.
Germination
Embryo resumes growth after quiescent state.
Requirements for plant embryo growth:
Water
Oxygen
Temperature
Dormant Seeds:
Additional requirements for embryo growth:
Light - smaller seeds like lettuce
Cold - oak, pine
Heavy rain - desert plants
Harsh conditions - break impermeable seed coats in animal intestine or fire.
After a seed has gone through quiesence it uses:
water
oxygen
adequate temperatures
Unless it is a dormant seed.
The first structure to come out of the seed is:
The root
In some seeds like grasses the SAM will break through protective coat and grow straight up.
Some seeds may have more curled leaves with photo receptors that can sense light and cause a change in gene expression.
True or false: In most seeds light is a requirement to germinate.
False. Oxygen, water and temperature are requirements.
RAM produces cells of the
Root.
The root cap and 3 primary tissues, the protoderm, the ground meristem and the procambium.
The three plant tissue types are:
Protoderm
ground meristem
procambium
The SAM
gives origin to the cells of the leaves and stem.
Auxillary bud
Forms at the angle between a leaf and the stem to form it's own SAM. Leaves or buds can come from it.
Buds can give rise to
branches, each tip with a SAM
Vegetative organs of plants
Roots
Stem
Leaves
Many plants have only:
Primary growth. Monocots and many eudicots.
Lateral meristems give way to
secondary growth - trees, shrubs and some non-woody plants.
Lateral meristems develop from the procambium and ground tissue.
Oldest tissues are at the base of the trunk furthest from the meristem and are more mature.
Newest tissues are at tips of the meristems.
Secondary growth rings occur in:
Temperate climates where growth cycles change based on weather.
The structure we know as wood is the
secondary xylem. Results from activity of the vascular cambium.
Bark, or periderm a dermal tissue of plants is produced by:
Cork cambium.
Botanically Bark includes:
All tissues outside the vascular cambium including the secondary xylem.
Flowers come from the:
SAM under certain conditions
Triggers that convert the SAM into floral meristems that produce flowers include:
Hormonal, developmental and environmental signals.
Ovary becomes the
Fruit
Trichomes
Outgrowths of the epidermis
Reflect Light
Reduce Transpiration
Defense - physical and chemical
mint, sage, fuzzy leaves, cotton
Root epidermis has a very thin cuticle and lacks
Stomata
Root hairs are
trichomes
Parenchyma Cells
Alive at maturity.
Respiration, photosynthesis and storage.
The part of celery that gets stuck in your teeth
Sclerenchyma Cells
Dead at maturity
Fibers support non growing plant parts
Sclereids protect agains herbivores
walnut shell, seed coat.
Xylem
Conduct water and minerals and support plant.
Phloem
Conduct organic molecules.
Tracheids
Found in all vascular plants.
Dead at maturity
Lignin in cell walls
Narrow cells
Water moves through pits (thin areas)
Vessels
Present only in angio sperms
Dead at maturity
Lignin in cell walls
winder and shorter than tracheids
Better water movement
Sieve tube members:
Angiosperms only
For sugar movement
No nucleus or ribosomes
Plasma membrane and some organelles
Companion Cell
Controls metabolism of the sieve tube members and loading/unloading of sugars.
Sieve Cells instead of sieve tubes
Gymnosperms and seedless vascular plants have thinner, longer sieve cells.
Each plant organ will always have
An epidermis
Ground tissues
Vascular Tissues
They may be in different orders
Viruses
Not alive
Can't produce their own metabolic activities
Have been found in all kinds of organisms
Tend to be species specific and cell type specific
Some destroy, some infect and cause no damage.
Some may remain dormant
Viruses have two parts:
Nucleic acid contains genetic information.
Protein coat or capsid

Some animal viruses may have an envelope of lipids, proteins and glycoprotiens outside of the capsid.
Virus synthesis
Ues the host cell polymerases, tRNA and amino acids to replicate its own DNA/RNA.
(like stealing the assembly line at a factory)
Bacteriophage or phage
virus that infects bacteria and injects viral DNA into host cell.
Lysogenic viruses
Can alter characteristics of bacteria. Example cholera, diphtheria, botulism and scarlet fever would be harmless in humans if not for certain phage genes that induce the host bacteria to make toxins.
Retroviruses
ssRNA or single stranded RNA is a template for DNA synthesis. It makes two copies of ssRNA and reverses genetic information.
HIV is a retrovirus that
Binds to receptors and fuses to the cell membrane
Attacts immune (T) cells.
When immune cells reach a certain point the cell can no longer fight off infection.
Reverse transcriptase occurs in
HIV retrovirus by making 2 copies and converting viral RNA into DNA.
Treatments of HIV
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Integrase inhibitors
Protease ihibitors
Entry inhibitors
Drug mixture reduces change of mutation to become resistant
HIV may hide in
lymph nodes
Emerging viruses
Mutating to become pathenogenic
Flu
Spread existing virus from one species to another
Viroids
Naked circular RNA cause diseases in plants
Prions
Infections protein, example mad cow disease, creutzfeldt-jakob in humans. Prion is a misfolded portion of a protein usually present in the brain. Neurons die.
Tropisms
Growth responses toward or away from stimulus
Gravitropism
Response to gravity.
Negative-grows against gravity for example roots grow down.
Positive - grows with gravity for example stems grow up.
Phototrophism
Is a growth response in the direction of light.
Photo receptors sense blue light and cause plant to move toward it.
Exposure to light causes a
Morphological change
Dark Seedling
Apical hook
thin and white
small leaves
Seedling exposed to light
Phytochromes are triggered
shoot turns green
leaves expand
stem growth decreases to become more upright
Phytochrome
receptor present in two forms
Pr "red" can't get into nucleus
Pfr "far red" can and affects gene expression
Plant Hormones
Auxins
Cytokinins
Gibberelins
Ethylene
Abscisic Acid
Auxin
Promotes cell expansion
Phototrophism
Promotes formation of adventitious roots
Cytokinins
Delay of leaf and flower aging
Promotion of growth in lateral buds
Affects organogensis in tissue to form new organs
Galls
used in creating transgenic plants
Example, herbicide resistant gene.
Salt tolerant
Phytosensor - detect TNT
Gibberellins
Young tissues
Promote stem elongation
Promotes fruit growth
Example - bigger grapes
Ethylene
Diffuses because it's a gas
Inhibits stem elongation
Leaf, flower and fruit aging and abscission.
Keep flowers longer
Ripen fruit more quickly - bananas
Agrobacterium tumefaciens alters levels of auxin and cytokinins in plant cells resulting formation of a
gall
ABA
Prevents premature seed germination
Water regulation
Stomata
Wilting in tomato plants is caused by
ABA synthesis problems
Constitutive Plant defenses
Physical - thorns, spines
Chemical - poinsons
Induced Plant defenses
Reponses to insect herbivory-secretion that limits digestion.
response occurs through out the plant at wounding.
Responses to pathogen invasions - virulent plants can't survive.
Avirulent plants can recognize and code receptors to bind to the molecules.
Avirulent Response
Localized or Systemic
Spore versus Seed
Spores are single celled and haploid.
Seeds are multicelled and diploid with a protective coat.
Bryophytes
Liverworts
Hornworts
Mosses
Characteristics of Bryophytes
Non Vascular
Small and herbacious
Gametophyte, haploid one n generation is dominant.
Require water to reproduce
Tacheophytes
Lycophytes
Ferns
Whiskferns
Horsetails
Characteristics of Tracheophytes
Carboniferous period: 360 - 290 MYA
Vascular tissues
Lignin in cell walls
Ariel portions are cuticle and stomata
Sperm have flagella and require some water to reproduce
Sporophyte, diploid, two n generation becomes dominant generation
Which of the following adaptations of land plants distinguish them from their algal ancestors?
(c) Embryo stage in their life cycle
(c) Vascular tissues
If scientists built a protobiont with self-replicating RNA and metabolism, would that prove that life began in this manner?
No - just one of many possibles ways life on earth may have originated.
Earth formation occurred about 4.5 BYA, while humans first appeared about 200,000 years. Thus, humans have been wandering earth for about ______% of earth's history.
0.005%
The scientific name for the grey and the red squirrel are Sciurus carolinensis and Sciurus vulgaris respectively. These two organisms belong to the same:
Genus and Family
Plant B in the picture below is more closely related to plant C than to plant A. This indicates that:
The similarities between plant A and B are the result of convergent evolution.
An organism is unicellular, heterotroph, and has a nuclear membrane and mitochondria. Based on this information, in which taxonomic group should this organism be placed?
Animalia
Differences between bacteria and archaea include
Types of RNA polymerases
Plasma membrane structure
Cell wall structure
In eukaryotic organisms, the enzymes for cellular respiration are located within mitochondria. In prokaryotic organisms, some of these enzymes are attached to
In folded regions of the plasma membrane.
A process that does NOT occur in bacteria is:
Meiosis
If a nonpathogenic bacterium were to acquire resistance to antibiotics, could this strain pose a health risk to people? (Hint: consider the possibility of genetic recombination among bacteria)
Yes
Which of the following modes of nutrition are unique to prokaryotes?
Chemoliautotrophs
Photoheterotrophs
Protists are alike in that all
Are eukaryotes.
The figure below illustrates a__________type of life cycle.
Haplodiplontic
Which of the following statements about dinoflagellates is FALSE?
They form large, spherical colonies.
Which of the following statements about dinoflagellates is TRUE?
They are unicellular
They are photosynthetic
They are part of marine plankton
Some form symbiotic associates with coralline animals
A characteristic of ciliates is that they
Have a small micro nuclei and large macronuclei
Which of the following statements concerning living phytoplanktonic organisms are TRUE?
They are important primary producers in most aquatic food webs.
They release oxygen into Earth's seas and atmosphere.
Which of the following statements concerning living photoplanktonic organisms are FALSE?
They are important members of communities surrounding deep- sea hydro-thermal vents.

They are heterotrophic and most often are found growing in the sediments of seas and oceans.
Among the organisms listed below, our closest relatives are:
the choanoflagellates
Which of the following statements about fungi is FALSE?
Most fungi have a diplontic life cycle (F)
Which of the following statements about fungi are true?
They are heterotrophic organisms
Some fungi are unicellular while others are multi-cellular
They decompose organic matter
Fungi have nuclear mitosis
Microsporidia ______________________
blastocladiomycetes ________________
Chytridiomycota____________________
Neocallimastigamycota ______________
__________ lack mitochondria
__________can be haplodiplontic
__________responsible for large decline in amphibians
__________digest cellulose in rumen
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about the mushroom shown in the picture?
This organism obtains carbon and energy by breaking organic matter present in the soil.

If you eat the basidiocarp of this organism, you would be chewing heterokaryotic hyphae.

A difference between this organism and a chytrid is that only the chytrid has zoospores with flagella.

A difference between this organism and a bread mold is that only the bread mold produces sporangia.
Which of the following structures in ascomycete is not properly matched with its karyotype?
Ascospores -- dikaryotic, no
Mated hyphae -- diploid, no
Ascospores are not dikaryotic
Mated hyphae are not diploid
Ascomycete karyotypes
Zygote is diploid
Hyphae are haploid
Which of the following adaptations of land plants distinguish them from their algal ancestors?
Embryo stage in their life cycle (not in algae)
Vascular tissues (not in algae)
(c/d)
Which of the following adaptations of land plants DO NOT distinguish them from their algal ancestors?
Chlorophyll a and b (algae have)
Cell walls with cellulose (algae have)
Which of the following features are common to bryophytes?
The gametophyte IS photosynthetic.
The gametophyte IS the dominant generation.

Note GAMETOPHYTE.
Unlike bryophytes, lycophytes
Vascular Tissues
Bryophytes and Lycophytes both have:
haplodiplontic life cycle
dominant gametophyte generation
Neither bryophytes or lycophytes:
produce seeds
Which of the following characteristics are common to seedless vascular plants?
All
Seedless vascular plants have a dominant sporeophyte 2N generation.

The sporeophyte 2N has a well developed vascular system and an epidermis with cuticle and stomata.

Seedless vascular plants have an alternation of independent generations and reproduce by spores.

Seedless vascular plants have sperm with flagella and an embryo stage in their life cycle.
Which of the following soils has the highest water holding capacity?
Clay - smallest particulates, less drainage.
Which of the following processes tends to increase the LONG-TERM fertility of the soil?
Addition of manure and compost
Presence of symbiotic associations between legumes and rhizobia
Identify the labeled structures:
A: pollen, micro gameotophyte
B represents the sporeophyte
C. Diploid Embryo
D. Female gameotophyte
Which of the following features/characteristics are present in gymnosperms, but are absent in ferns?
Ovules
Retention of the female gametophyte
Pollen
Seeds
All of the above
A plant is in a soil with a Ww of -0.5 MPa. The Ws is -1.5 and the Wp is 0 MPa. In what direction does the water move?
From the soil to the root. -1.5 + 0 = -1.5 which is more negative than -0.5 so water moves toward the more negative.
During movement of water through the xylem:
a. water in the trunk of a tree should begin to move before water in the leaves.
b. loss of water due to transpiration creates a tension in the xylem that lifts water up the plant.
c. water is pushed up the tree to the leaves by root pressure.
d. water is pushed up the tree by ATP pumps.
b. Loss of water due to transpiration creates a tension in the xylem that lifts water up the plant.
In the phloem solutes move from sources to sinks:
because the pressure of the source is higher than the sink.
Which of the following statements about embryo development in plants is FALSE?
a. Most of the organs of a mature plant are present in the embryo - false.
Which of the following statements about embryo development in plants is TRUE?
b. The mature embryo has apical meristems - true.
c. The mature embryo has a radial pattern of cells consisting of protoderm, ground meristem and procambium - true
d. In eudicots, the shoot apical meristem develops between two cotyledons - true
In order to germinate most seeds require:
e. water, oxygen and adequate temperatures
Recognize the vascular cambium, primary and secondary xylem and primary and secondary phloem.
The vascular cambium
Which of the following cell types is incorrectly paired with its function
Root Hairs - defense against herbivores. Not the correct function of root hairs. Root hairs absorb nutrients and water.
The following cell types are paired correctly with their function:
Parenchyma = phytosynthesis
Collenchyma=support of growing parts of the plant
Sieve-tube members=sugar transport
Meristematic cells=cell division
What components may be enclosed within a viral capsid?
c. DNA
d. RNA
Which statement about HIV is false:
HIV infects all human cells is False.
Prions are
Misfolded versions of normal brain protein
When the tip of a germinating seedling emerges from the soil into the light, the plant undergoes a set of changes in growth and development called ____________, which are triggered by ____________.
Photomorphogenesis
Red Light Triggers
A transgenic tomato plant cannon produce ethylene. What will be the phenotype of this mutant?
Fruit ripening will take longer than in wild plants.
The following statement about plant defense mechanisms is false:
The sytemic response to insect herbivory is an example of a consitutive defense response. False
The following statements about plant defense mechanisms are true:
A plant pathogen is considered avirulent if the plant has receptors that recognize molecules produced by the pathogen.
Some plants deter herbivores by producing molecules that are very toxic
In response to insect herbivory, plants can produce molecules that inhibit protein digestion
The cuticle reduces germination of fungal spores
Homeostasis
The dynamic (conditions never constant) constancy of the internal environment.
Why is homeostasis important in biological systems?
Physiological processes generally operate within specific limits.
What biological processes challenge homeostasis?
(1) Metabolic needs and biproducts
(2) Changes in the external environment
Negative feedback loop
Coordinated activities of bodily systems and organs.
Negative feedback
A homeostatic control mechanism whereby an increase in some substance or activity inhibits the process leading to the increase. Also known as feedback inhibition.
Regulating body temperature
(1) Radiation, the transfer of heat by electromagnetic radiation.
(2) Conduction, the direct transfer of heat between objects.
(3) Convection, transfer of heat via the movement of gas or liquid such as the wind.
(4) Evaporation transfer from liquid to gas phase that requires heat.
Warm blooded and cold blooded
Considered outdated because warm blooded may not maintain warm temperature. Example bats, humming birds. Many animals can do both.
Animals known as cold blooded may have warm blood at sometime.
Endothermy
Preferred terminology to describe animals that use metabolism to generate body heat and maintain their temperatures above the ambient temperature.
Ectothermy
Preferred terminology to describe animals with a low metabolic rate that do not use metabolism to regulate body temperature but instead conform to ambient temperature.
Ectothermy and Endothermy define the ________ _________ source used for regulation.
heat source
How do ectotherms regulate body temperature?
Via behavioral thermoregulation. Includes color, shape, posture, orientation to heat source and shuttling behavior.
Mechanisms of heat gain and loss in endotherms.
Metabolism, muscle contractions are used to gain heat. Heat is lost by radiation, conduction, forced convection or evaporation. Size and insulation are factors in the rate of heat gained or lost.
Common ectotherms
Invertebrates, reptiles, anphibians and some fish.
Common endotherms
Birds, mammals, some reptiles (crocodiles) and insects (bees). Reptiles and insects do not have the mechanisms to produce their own heat for long periods.
____________ are more efficient at balancing heat gain and loss but there is a higher cost to metabolism.
Endotherms (more efficient)
Countercurrent blood flow
Mechanism in some cold adapted animals to limit heat loss during movement of blood by positioning of veins and arteries. Heat is gained by transfer across the gradient.
Torpor
A temporary reduction (daily) in body temperature during periods of inactivity. Examples include hummingbirds or bats. Optimal is 37 degrees celcius.
Hibernation (updated definition)
Seasonal reduction in metabolism concurrent with scarcity in food supply and colder temperatures. Not all animals that are inactive during these periods actually change body temperature and are not thought to hibernate. Example bears.
Osmotic Balance
Balance between water distribution in intracellular and extracellular compartments of an animal's body.
Osmoconformer
Extracellular fluids are isotonic (same polarity) to seawater and no osmotic gradient exists so water does not enter or leave the body.
Osmoregulator
Maintain constant blood osmolarity by internal processing despite differences in the environment. Are either hypotonic or hypertonic to surroundings.
Osmoregulators replace lost water by:
...
9 Phylum
Porifera
Cnidaria
Platyhelminthes
Nematoda
Annelida
Mollusca
Arthropoda
Enchinodermata
Chordata
Porifera
Class Calcarea
Class Hexactinellida
Class Demospongiae
Cnadaria
Class Hydrozoa
Class Scyphozoa
Class Anthozoa
Platyhelminthes
Class Turbellaria
Class Trematoda
Class Ceromeromorpha (Cestoda)
Nematoda
Turbatrix
Ascaris
Annelida
Class Polychaeta
Class Clitellata
Mollusks
Class Polyplacophora
Class Bivalvia
Class Gastropoda
Class Cephalopoda
Arthropoda
Trilobites (subphylum)
Chelicerata (subphylum)
Crustacea (subphylum)
Uniramia (subphylum)
Chelicerates (sub phylum)
Class Xiphosura
Class Arachnida
Crustaceans (sub phylum)
crabs
shrimps
crayfishes
lobsters
isopods
Uniramia (sub phylum)
Class Myriapoda
Hexapoda
Echinodermata
Class Crinoidea
Class Asteroidea
Class Ophiuroidea
Class Echinoidea
Class Holothuroidea
Phylum Chordata
Urochordata (sub phylum)
Cephalochordata (sub phylum)
Vertebrata (sub phylum)
Cephalochordata (sub phylum)
Class Cephalospidomorphi (lampreys)
Class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous)
Class Sarcopterygii (lobe)
Class Actinopterygii (ray)
Class Anphibia
Class Reptilia
Class Mammalia
Class Aves
Q. Dinosaurs, along with crocodiles and birds make up the ______________ lineage of reptiles.

A. Lepidosaur
B. Archosaur
C. Hadrosaur
D. Theropod
E. none of the previous
B. ARCHOSAUR

Q. Dinosaurs, along with crocodiles and birds make up the ARCHOSAUR lineage of reptiles.
Which of the following statements is false?


A. Dinosaur lineages are divided into two major groups based on the orientation of their hip bones.

B. Ornithischian dinosaurs gave rise to the class Aves (hence the term ornithology - the study of birds).

C. Theropods include carnivorous dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus Rex and Velociraptor

D Sauropods and Theropods are considered Saurischian dinosaurs

E. The evolutionary origin of feathers in Theropod dinosaurs is thought to be unrelated to flight.
Which of the following statements is false?

B. ORNITHISCHIAN DINOSAURS GAVE RISE TO THE CLASS AVES (HENCE THE TERM ORNITHOLOGY - THE STUDY OF BIRDS).
Which of the following best defines modern animals in the class Aves? (i.e. which definition includes all birds and excludes all other animals)

A. Feathered Amniotes

B. Diapsids with a four -chambered heart

C. Vertebrates with a closed, double-loop circulatory system

D. Endothermic vertebrates with wings based on modified forearms.

E. Egg-laying vertebrates with a four-chambered heart.
Q. Which of the following best defines modern animals in the class Aves? (i.e. which definition includes all birds and excludes all other animals?)

A. Feathered Amniotes
Q. Which of the following statements about birds is false?

A. The keel of the sternum is typically reduced in birds that do not fly (e.g. ostriches)

B. Thoracic vertebrate are flexible and free moving to enhance maneuverability in flight.

C. The bones of birds are laced with cavities

D. Respiration in birds involves one-way airflow through lungs.

E.Birds and reptiles share similar developmental (i.e., the amniotic egg)
Which of the following statements about birds is false?

B. THORACIC VERTEBRATE ARE FLEXIBLE AND FREE MOVING TO ENHANCE MANEUVERABILITY IN FLIGHT.
The periodic loss and subsequent regrowth of feathers in birds is known as:

A. Ecdysis

B. Preening

C. Molting

D. Shedding

E. Exfoliation
The periodic loss and subsequent regrowth of feathers in birds is known as:

C. MOLTING
Based on what line of evidence do scientists believe pelycosaurs were forerunners of mammals?

A. Fur and mammary glands

B. Four-chambered Heart

C. Endothermy

D. Synapsid skull

Diapsid Skull
Based on what line of evidence to scientists believe pelycosaurs were forerunners of mammals?

D. SYNAPSID SKULL
When did mammals first appear in the fossil record?

A. Triassic

B. Jurassic

C. Cretaceous

D. post-Cretaceous, soon after the extinction of dinosaurs.
When did Mammals first appear in the fossil record?

A. TRIASSIC Period
Which of the following best defines extant (currently living animals) and excludes all other animals?

A. Animals with a anapsid skull

B. animals with a diapsid skull, hair, and females that produce mammary glands.

C. Terrestrial vertebrates with hair.

D. Haired Amniotes that do not lay eggs; females possess mammary glands

E. Endothermiic vertebrates with a four chambered heart, hair and mammary glands.
Which of the following best describes extant (currently living) animals and excludes all others?

B. Animals with a diapsid skull and females that produce mammary glands.
The shaft of a mammalian hair is made up primary of:

A. epidermis
B. connective tissues
C. Keratin
D. Chitin
E. Pepsin
The shaft of a mammalian hair is made up primarily of KERATIN.
Which of the following mammals lay eggs?

A. Opossum

B. Platypus

C. kangaroo

D. Lemur

E. none-extant mammals do not lay eggs.
Which of the following mammals lay eggs:

B. PLATYPUS
Which of the teeth labeled on the ape skull below is an incisor - A, B, C or D?


(see image from question 11)
Which of the teeth labeled on the ape skull below is an incisor - A is the incisor
What component of the amniotic egg contributes to the placenta in placental mammals?

A. Yolk sac

B. Amnion

C. Allantois

D. Chorion

E. Shell
What component of the amniotic egg contributes to the placenta in placental mammals?

D. CHORION
Consider the following scenario; At the end of the semester you decide to go on an exotic vacation to the tropics. During a walk in the rain forest you slip and bang your head on a rock, resulting in amnesia - you cannot remember where you are! While lying dazed on your back you look up in the trees and see a primate using its prehensile tail to swing from branch to branch. Good thing you were paying attention during your recent B 192 lecture on primates - you now know that you must be in:

A. Africa

B. Australia

C. Madagascar

D. South America

E India
Consider the following scenario; At the end of the semester you decide to go on an exotic vacation to the tropics. During a walk in the rain forest you slip and bang your head on a rock, resulting in amnesia - you cannot remember where you are! While lying dazed on your back you look up in the trees and see a primate using its prehensile tail to swing from branch to branch. Good thing you were paying attention during your recent B 192 lecture on primates - you now know that you must be in:

D. SOUTH AMERICA
Based on current fossil evidence, ______ species of Homo have dispersed from Africa, with ________ being the first of those species to inhabit Europe.

A. two; Homo neanderthalensis

B. two; Homo erectus

C. two; Homo sapiens

D. three; Homo erectus

E. three; Homo neanderthalensis
Based on current fossil evidence, ______ species of Homo have dispersed from Africa, with ________ being the first of those species to inhabit Europe.

D. THREE; HOMO ERECTUS
Consider the following scenario; A fossil hunter finds the skeletal remains of a hominoid and is trying to determine whether it animal walked upright. Which of the following options is consistent with an animal that walked upright? The diagram of a skull below provides some terminology that may be helpful.


See image of skull with inferior jaw, posterior cranium.

A. Chimpanzee-sized brain case; skull attaches to spine inferiorly .

B. Skull attaches to spine posteriorly; femur angled outward.

C. Skull attaches to spine posteriorly; slight curvature to the spine.

D. Arms longer than legs, long, narrow pelvis.

E. Opposale thumbs; binocular vision.
Consider the following scenario; A fossil hunter finds the skeletal remains of a hominoid and is trying to determine whether it animal walked upright. Which of the following options is consistent with an animal that walked upright? The diagram of a skull below provides some terminology that may be helpful.

A. Chimpanzee-sized brain case; skull attaches to spine inferiorly .
Which of the following statements is false?

A. based on molecular similarities hominids are thought to have evolved from chimpanzees

B. "Lucy" belongs to the genus Australopithecus
Bipedal-ism preceded large brain size in hominids.

C. bipedalism preceded large brain size in hominids.

D. Through hominid evolution, it was not uncommon for numerous species of hominid to exist at the same time.

D. Genetic evidence suggests that Homo neanderthalensis has contributed to the DNA of Homo sapiens, likely a result of limited crossbreeding when the populations overlapped.
Which of the following statements is false?

D. Genetic evidence suggests that Homo neanderthalensis has contributed to the DNA of Homo sapiens, likely a result of limited crossbreeding when the populations overlapped.
Which of the following is an example of a muscular skeleton:

A. An earthworms's body
B. a giraffe's neck
C A sea star's tube foot
D An elephant trunk
E The Hulk-----> image from exam of the hulk.
Which of the following is an example of muscular skeleton:

D. AN ELEPHANTS TRUNK
Which of the following graphs best represents growth in an animal with an exoskeleton, such as a crab?

Four image comparisons A - D
Which of the following graphs best represents growth in an animal with an exoskeleton such as a crab?

A. STAIRSTEP COMPARISON
The most distal joint in your finger (i.e. near the tip) is best described as a _______ joint, where as the attachment at your hip is best described as a ______ joint.

A. gliding; ball & socket
B. hinge; ball & socket
C. gliding; hinge
D ball and socket; hinge
E combination; hinge
The most distal joint in your finger (i.e. near the tip) is best described as a _______ joint, where as the attachment at your hip is best described as a ______ joint.

B. HINGE, BALL & SOCKET
In most vertebrates (but not birds, marrow is produced in the ______________________.

A. Spongy Bone
B. Chondrocytes
C. Osteocytes
D. Myocardium
E. Medullary Cavity
In most vertebrates (but not birds, marrow is produced in the ______________________:

E. Medullary Cavity
Smooth muscle;

A. is under autonomic control
B. is composed of long multi nucleated, striated cells
C is restricted to the heart
D. all of the above
E. All of the above
Smooth muscle;

A. Under autonomic control
Based on this diagrammatic cross section of an insect's thorax, which of the labeled muscles would be responsible for the upstroke (ie raising the wing?)

Need to insert figure
Based on this diagrammatic cross section of an insect's thorax, which of the labeled muscles would be responsible for the upstroke (ie raising the wing?)

Answer is A
In the micrography of skeletal muscle myobivrils shown below, which letter corresponds to a region of overlap between actin and myosin myofilaments?

A B C D
A was the correct answer. Will need to review if I actually buy the subscription and upload my own images.
Which of the following statements is false?

A. Sarcomeres are the organelles responsible for the release of Ca^++ into muscle tissue during a contraction.

B. "thin myofilamients are complised of actin, troponin, and tropomyosin"

C. Individual myofilaments do not change in length during contraction from a miber

D. Muscle fibers respond to nerve impoulses in an all-or-none fashion.

E. during a muscle contraction, myosin heads bind to actin molecules, forming temporary cross bridges.
Which of the following Statements is False:

A. False - Sarcomeres are not responsible for the release of Ca++ into muscle tissue during a contraction.
Muscles cannont function in the absence of:

A. Oxygen
B. ATP
C. an Endoskeleton
D All the previous
E A & B `
Muscles cannot function in the absence of:

E: A & B (Oxygen and ATP)
Before muscle contraction can occur, ____ binds to _____, which alters the configuration of the tropnin-tripomyosin complex, and allows _________________ to bind with actin.

A. acetylcholine; Ca++; myosin heads

B. Ca++; tropomyosin; ATP

C.P; ADP; tropomyosin

C. Ca++; troponin; myosin heads

D Ca++; troponin; myosin heads

E. O2; troponin;tropomyosin
The intensity of a muscle response to a stimulus depends on:

D. Ca++; troponin;myosin heads
The intensity of a muscle response to a stimulus depends on:

A. the number of muscle fibers contracted by axonal branches of a motor neuron

B. the number of motor units recruited

C. the intensity (i.e., stregth) of contractions by indibidual muscle fibers

D. All of the above

E. A + B only
The intensity of a muscle response to a stimulus depends on:

E. A & B Only
Muscle cells in the vertebrate heartfunction as a single unit known as a:

A. Motor unit

B. Myofibril

C. Sinoatrial node

D Fascicle
u
E. Myocardium
Muscle cells in the vertebrate heartfunction as a single unit known as a:

E. Myocardium
Sponges are best described as:

A. fluid feeders

B. Suspension feeders

C. Omnivores

D. Filter Feeders

E. Deposit Feeders
Sponges are best described as:

B. SUSPENSION FEEDERS
Which of the following statemets is false:

A. rabbits consumes their own feces to facilitate digestion of vegetable matter

B. Ruminants have a four-chambered stomach to facilitate digestion of vegetable matter

C. the cecum in mammals is located at the junction of the small and large intestine

D. Peristalsis refers to rythmic waves of muschle contraction along the esophagus during swallowing

E. In humans, approximately 25% of digestion takes place in the large intestine.
Which of the following statemets is false:

E. In humans, approximately 25% of digestion takes place in the large intestine. ----FALSE---
Which of the following products is not secreted by the stomach:

A. Hydrochloric Acid

B. Pepsid

C. Pepsinogen

D. Mucus
Which of the following products is not secredted by the stomach?

B. PEPSID
What is the function of the gastric Mill in crayfish, the gizzared in birds and earth worms?

A. Temporary food storage
B. Crushing and grinding food
C. Absorption of water and metabolites from foo
D. All of the above
What is the function of the gastric mill in crayfish, the gizzard in worms and birds?

B. Crushing and grinding food
Bile produced by the _____________ is stored in the __________ until needed.
A. Liver; gallbladder

B. gall bladdeer;common bile duct;

C. Spleen; pancrease

D. Pancrease; gall bladder
Bile produced in the liver is stored in the gallbldder until needed.

A. Liver; gallbladder
Buffers needed to neutralize gastric juices are aproduced by the __________ and delivered to the ___________.
A. pancrease; gallbladder

B. gall bladder; cecum

C. stomach; duodenum

D Pancrease; duodenum

E. Appendix; small intestine
Buffers needed to neutralize gastric juices are aproduced by the __________ and delivered to the ___________.

D Pancrease; duodenum
Digested proteins and carbohydrates are transported via the _____________ to the ______________
A. Hepatic Portal vein; liver

B. small intestine; large intestine

C.Common Bile duct, duoendrum

D.stomach, duoendum

E. pancrease; duodenum
Digested protiens and carbohydrates are trnaspoerted via the ___________ to the _______________.

A. HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN; LIVER
A. True or False:
An open circulatory system, rather than a closed circulatory system is responsiblefor oxygen transport to the tissues of insects.
True.

An open circulatory system, rather than a closed cirulatory system is responsible for oxygen trasoportation in insects.
Blood circulation in squids is best described as:

A. single loop

B. double loop

C. tripple loop

D open
Blood circulation in squids is best described with a double loop, closed circulatory systmem.

B. DOUBLE LOOP
Double loop blood circulation is characteristic of:

A. All vertebrates

B. amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals only

C. reptiles, birds, and mammals only

D birds and mammals only

E mammals only
Double loop blood circulation is characteristic of:

B. ANPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS AND MAMMALS ONLY.
In the diagram of a mammalian heart below, which of the four chambers receives oxygenatede blood from the lungs via pulmonary veins?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Need the image here
In the diagram of a mammalian heart below the arrow marked C is the chamber which receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins.
At any given moment, most of a human's blood is contained within:

A. Heart
B. Arteries
C. Veins
D. Lungs
E. Brains
At any given moment, most of a human's blood is contained within:

C. VEINS
Which of the following statements is false?

A. blood plasma is the source of interstitial fluid in mammals?

B. in mammals, erythrocytes develop from stem cells located within the lymphatic system

C. Hemoglobin is a pigment that binds to oxygen

D. Leukocytes are important for immune respon
Which of the following statements is false?

B. In Mammals, erythrocytes DO NOT develop from stem cells located within the lymphatic system.
Consider the following scenario; While walking barefoot on the beach you step on a broken bottle and cut your foot. which of the folloing processes tke place to stop the bleding?

A. blood flow to the injured area is reduced via contration of smooth muschles in the affected blood vessels.
B. platelets adhere to the damaged area to help form a clot
C. the heart reduces blood flow to the affected area so that clotting is more easily achieved
D all of the above
E A & B Only
Consider the following scenario; While walking barefoot on the beach you step on a broken bottle and cut your foot. which of the folloing processes tke place to stop the bleding?

E. A and B only
Fick's Law of Diffusion includes four variables to describe R, the rate of diffusion of gasses across plasma membranes: D= diffusion constant, A= surface area, ^P=concentration differential across membrane and d= width of the membrane. Based on our understanding of Fick's Law which equation describes Ficks' Law best?

A) R=Dx^pxdA

B) R=DxAxd/^p

C) R=Ax^p x d/D

D)r+dxAx^p/d
Based on our understanding of Fick's Law which equation describes Ficks' Law best?

D)r+dxAx^p/d
Plethodonitd salamanders lack lungs. Given uour knowledge of Fick's law of diffusion, it is not suprising that these animals are _____ in size and found in _____________, ____________ environments.

A. small; warm, dry

B. large; warm, wet

C. small; warm, humid

D.large; cool, wet

E. small; cool, wet
Plethodonitd salamanders lack lungs. Given uour knowledge of Fick's law of diffusion, it is not suprising that these animals are _____ in size and found in _____________, ____________ environments.

E. small; cool, wet
The minute sacs that increse surface area within mammalian lungsa re called:

A. ostia
B. papillae
C. buccal cavities
D. villi
E alveoli
The minute sacs that increse surface area within mammalian lungsa re called:

E. ALVEOLI
Book lungs are found in:

A. insects
B. spiders
C. sea stars
D. lungfish
E. Larval salamandars
Book lungs are found in:

B. SPIDERS
Trace the bath that air flows during respiration in a bird:

A. IN, lungs, posterior air sacs, anterior air sacs, Out.

B. IN, anterior air sacs, lungs, posterior air sacs, out.

C. IN, posterior air sacs, anterior air sacts, lungs, out

D. IN posterior air sacs, lungs, anterior air sacs, OUT

E. IN lungs, air sacs, lungs, OUT.
Trace the bath that air flows during respiration in a bird:;
D. IN posterior air sacs, lungs, anterior air sacs, OUT
During respiration in humans, contraction of intercostal muscles;

A. reduces the volume of the thoracic cavity, thereby helping to expel air from the lungs.

B. lowers the base of the thoracic cavity, thereby creating negative pressure and drrawung air into the lungs
C. raise the base of the thoracic cavity, causing lungs to expand outward and flil with air
D. raises the ribs, thereby expanding the thoracic cavity and helping to draw air into the lungs.
E. pushes air into lungs
During respiration in humans contraction of intercostal muscles.

A. Reduces volume of the thoracic cavity, thereby helping to expel air from the lungs.
Which of the following statements is false?

A.negative pressure breathing and cutaneous respiration are characteristic of most anphibians
B. Larval salamandders have external gills but typically lose them asa adults
C. the papulae and tube feet in se stars function as gills in respiration
D In fishes, O2 and CO2 gas exchange occurs across gill filaments.
E bird lungs employone=way airflow whereas mammalian lungs employ two way airflow.
Which of the following statements is false?

A. Negative pressure breathing and cutaneous respiration are characteristic of most anphibians.
The CNS is composed of:

A. the brain and spinal cord

B. afferent and efferent neurons

C. sensory nerons, interneurons, and motor neurons

D. the somatic and autonomic nervouse system
The central nervouse system is composed of:

A. THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
The motor neurons that stimulate contractions in the smooth muschle surrounding arterioles are part of the:

A) central nervous system

B) somatic nervouse system

C)Autonomic nervous system
The motor neurons that stimulate contractions in the smooth muschle suurounding arterioles are part of the:

C. Autonomic Nervous System
Efferent Neurons:

A. conduct nerve impulses from sensory receoptors to the central nervous system

B. conduct nver impulses from the central nervous system to glands and muscles.

C. Are located exclusively in the brain and spinal cord

D. represent 99% of all neurons in humans

3. Are responsible for the sensation of pain.
Efferent Neurons:

B. conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to glands and muscles.
Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes:

A. Are neuoglial cells

B. Are responsible for the myelin sheath around the axon of some neurons

C. promote saltatory transmission of action potentials along axons

D. All of the above

E A + B only
Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes:

D. All of the above
Which of the following events occurs first in the axon of a neuron stimulated to produce an AP?

A. voltage - gated ion channels close, preventing the movement of Na+ across the cell membrane.

B. voltage-gated ion channels in the cell membrane open, allowing Na+ ions to enter the cell and iniitate depolarization.

C. K+ floods the cell via diffusion, depolarizaing the cell and propagating the AP along the length of the axon.

D. K+ Exits cell via Na+/K+ pump, returning cell to it's resting membrane potential. RMB
Which of the following events occurs first in the axon of a neuron stimulated to produce an AP?

B. voltage-gated ion channels close, preventing the movement of Na+ across the cell membrane.
Which of the following statements is false?

A. resting membrane potential is the electrical gradient between a neuron at rest adn its surrounding envionrment.

B. fixed anions are less concentrated inside a neuron than in the surrounding environment

C. A threshold of depolarization must be reached before an action potential is initiated in a neuron

D. during an AP, the magnitude of depolarization is unaffected by stimulus intensity

E. Once initiated, an AP moves along the axon like a self -propagating wave.
Which of the following statements is false?
B. fixed anions are less concentrated inside a neuron than in the surrounding environment
List the Domains
Eukarya
Archea (archea bacteria)
Bacteria (eubacteria)
What makes a species
Group of organisms with a unique genetic history
How old is the Earth?
4.6 Billion years old
In the evolution of life, what are the order of events?
1) Appearance of prokaryotes
2) Appearance of Eukaryotes
3) Multicellularity
4) Colonization of the land
Evolution has generated how many species?
More than 1 billion
Order from largest to smallest
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
If two names are Felis catus and Felis cougar, what do they belong to?
Same Genus
Same Family
Different species
The phenomenon that gave rise to chloroplasts in algae is:
Endosymbiosis
What are the 3 shapes of prokaryotes?
Bacilli (rod)
Coccus (spherical)
Spirilla (spiral)
Name the components of Bacteria Structure?
Cell Walls (in most)
Capsule
Pili
Flagella
Plasma Membrane
Internal Membrane
Genome
Plasmids
Ribosomes
Bacteria Reproduction Cycle
1) Replication of bacterial chromosome
2) Daughter chromosomes bind to plasma membrane
3) Cell growth results in the separation of chromosomes
4) Plasma membrane and cell wall grow inward
5) Formation of 2 daughter cells
What are the causes of Genetic Variations?
Mutations (most common)
Transformation (Genes take up info from environment)
Conjugation (transfer genetic info through pilus)
Transduction (genes transferred between prokaryotes by viruses)
Taxonomic Categories in order (7)
Species
Genus
Family
Order
Classes
Phylum
Kingdom
Domain
Kingdoms of Eukarya
Protista
Fungi
Viridiplantae
Animalia
Fungi characteristics
most are multicellular
Heterotrophs
Non-motile
indeterminate growth
Heterotrophic
Viridiplante characteristics
photosynthetic organisms
most multicellular
interderminate growth
Autotrophic
Animalia characteristics
Motility
Determinate Growth
Multicellular
Hetertrophic
Ingestion
List the new features in Eukaryotes
Greater compartmentalization within cells
Multicullarity
Sexual Reproduction (MEIOSIS)
Protista Features
Unicellular
Hetertroph
Neuclear membrane
Mitocondria
What are the oldest and most abundant group of organisms
Prokaryotes
Differences between bacteria and archea include:
Types of RNA polymerases
Plasma Membrane structure
Cell Wall structure
In eukaryotic organisms, the enzymes for cellular respiration are located where?
Mitochondria
In prokaryotic organisms, emzymes are attached to the:
infolded region of the plasma membrane
An organism is multicellular and autotrophic. What domain is it in?
Eukarya
Classification of prokaryotes is based on
comparison of DNA sequences
Endospores
Form thick-walled structures that contain the bacterial chromosome and a small amount of cytoplasm
Many bacteria exchange genetic information through what?
Pili
Chemoliautrotrophs
Obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic molecules
What organisms lack functional mitochondria
diplomonads
What comes from protists's fossils:
Natural gas and Petroleum
What forms Red Tides and what does that cause?
Dinoflagellates that secrete neruotoxins that can kill fish and birds
Lethargy is a key clinical sign of
Sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosomas
Which of the following are our closest relatives:
Green algae
Oomycota
Choanoflagellates
Plasmodial Slime Molds
Choanoglagellates
The unique double shells of diatoms are made of:
Silica
Amoeba characteristics
Unicellular
Heterotrophic
Lacks a cell wall
Forms pseudopods
Has a nuclear membrane and organelles
Fungi characteristics
Asexual reproduction
Heterrotrophic
Chitin in their cell walls
Seperation of chromosome within the nucleus
Lack Flagella
A mass of hyphae is commonly referred to as:
A Mycelium
Where would you find living members of phylum Glomeromycota fungi?
the roots of plants
Truffles are:
expensive ascocarps
A common feature between basidiomycetes and ascomycetes is that:
The dikaryotic stage is more extensive than in zygomycetes
Ringworm is caused by:
A fungus
A symbiotic association between a fungus and a green alga or a fungus and a cyanobacterium is called a:
Lichen
The most recent common ancestor of all land plants was most similar to modern-day members in which group?
Charophytes
Land plant features
Have an embryo stage in their life cycle
Have a haplodiplontic life cycle
Multicellular organisms

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