sport psychology ch 13

Terms in this set (23)

A) based off the ideomotor principle of imagery which states that imagery facilitates the learning of motor skills due to the nature of neuromuscular activity patterns activated during imaging.
B) Vividly imagined events innervate muscles in partially the same way that physically practicing the movement does
- These slight neuromuscular impulses hypothesized to be identical to those produced during actual performance but reduced in magnitiude b/c the impulses mb so minor that the don't actually produce movement
C) First scientific support of this phenomenon via Edmund Jacobson showed that imagined movements of bending ones arm creates small muscular contractions in the flexor muscles of the arm.
D) According to some electrical activity produced by ones muscle doesn't necc mirror the actual pattern of activity when actually performing said movement
E) Definitive research necc to empirically substantiate how imagery actually works as predicted bby psychonueromuscular theory
F) Murphy-with new imaging technqiues like positron emission tomography etc, we can llook at pics of a persons brain while resting and compare them with pics taken when they are imaging (e.g. when running a 400 M race)
- Pictures show that certain areas of the cerebral cortex more active when ppl use imagery than while resting
G) Found that when ppl imagine starting a movement, various areas of the brain become active like the premotor cortex as te actionis prepped
- Prefrontal cortex as the action is iniated and the cerebellum during the ctlr of movement sequences which req a specific order
A) To improve concentration (e.g. imagining yourself in a situation where you would normally lose your concentration like after airballing a wide open jumpshot followed by imagining yourself composed and focused on what to do next). Also will lead to helping ppl be more aware of competitive cues which can contribute to faster decision making and improved execution of individual or team tactics.
B) Enhances motivation (e.g. someone in a fitness class imagining themselves as healthier and improving ones physical appearance)
C) In building confidence (e.g. imagining oneself having a good race with a good time and being excited about the time they got)
D) Ctrls emotional responses (e.g to create higher lvls of arousal like getting pumped up, if an athlete is feeling lethargic or gets too uptight)
E) Acquiring, practicing and correcting sports skills (e.g. imagining oneself practicing a specific sport skill like shooting free-throws or 1 can pin pt skills in ones mind and visualize correcting them)
F) Auqring and practicing strategies (e.g. a QB visualizing diff defenses and playus that they would call to counteract)
G) Prepping for competition (e.g. shooting warm up layups)
H) Coping with pain and injury (e.g. imaging doing practice skills to help facilitate recovery)
I) Problem solving (if a gymnast experiences trouble on specific aspects of their floor routine they can visualize what they are doing now and compare it with what they did in the past when they did not perform as successfully)
A) Vivideness (clear)
1) Used by good imagers via all their senses creating as close as possibler the actual epxeirence in ones mind paying attention to environmental details of the place one is performing/playing @
2) Important to try to feel the anxiety, concentration, frustration, exhilaration or anger associated with ones performance while performing (all of this will help make the performance more realistic)
3) If one has trouble imagining thing sclearly and vividly they should first try to imagine things familiar to themselves (e.g. ones rooms furniture) followed by using the place where you compete in sport and practice.
4) Three good exercises to work on ones vivideness include:
a) Imagining ones home
b) Imagining a positive performance of a skill
c) Imagining a positive performance by visually recalling how you looked when performing well, the sounds heard while you played including your internal dialogue with yourself and your internal response when facing adversity during a competition/game and all the kinesthetic sense you have when playing well (like how your ft and hands felt)
B) Ctrlability
1) The ability to manipulate ones imagery images to get them to do what they want
2) Helps one picture what they want to accomplish instead of seeing themselves make mistakes (e.g. scoring a buzzer beater shot instead of airballing a layup)
3) Practice=key to do this successfully
4) Suggested exercises to do this well include:
a) Ctrling ones performance by working on a specific skill that has prev given you more trouble than others in the past (e.g a basketball player imagining seeing and feeling themself shooting a freethrow perfectly followed by working on a skill that has given you trouble in the past like shooting 2 free-throws at the end of a game where your team is down by 1
b) Ctrling performance against a tough opponent (e.g. a QB imagining situations when they are getting the best of their opponent by seeing themselves cslling correct audibles at the ln of scrimmage to beat each defense while making sure to ctrl all aspect of their movements and their decisions
c) Ctrling ones emotions (e.g. situations where gets angry or something like that like blowing a breakaway layup by recreating the situation especially the feelings accompanied by it like Sarachek)
A) Can be done by using the following guidelines:
1) The phys nature of the movement
2) The specifics of the environment
3) The type of task
4) The timing of the movement
5) Learning the content of the movement
6) The emotion (meaning to the individual) of the movement
7) The internal or external perspective of the person
B) Imagery very effective when players were the clothing they would wear when playing their sports along with doing imagery on the actual field.
C) The motor imagery integrative model posits 4 specific areas and then some subareas which imagery can be used to affect various aspects of sport performance:
D) Good to have tailor imagery programs to help exercisers or athletes with their indiivudal needs, abilities and interests
E) Imagery skill lvl should be evaluated
1) Done through diff tests
a) Betts questionnaire on mental imagery
b) The vividness of movement imagery questionnaire developed to measure visual imagery along with kinesthetic imagery
c) The sport imagery questionnaire containing questions regarding the freq that ppl use various types of imagery (e.g. imaging sport skills, strategies of play, focus, or the arousal that may accompany performance)
- Freq items in the SIQ indicate that athletes found these specific imagery techniques and strategies effective and in further ext. of this test researchers found that that the function not content of images most critical
F) Implementing feedback into imagery training through practicing in many settings, aiming for relaxed concentration (e.g. deep breathing), establishing realistic expectations and sufficient motivation, use of vivid and ctrlable images, application of imagery to specific situations (e.g. if you are having trouble with free-throws imagery related to improving this skill), maintaining pos focus, consideration of the use of DVD, and other audio video rec to watch or listen to, including execution and outcome (end result of skills), and image timing (e.g. in real time the time spent imaging a specific skill shuld be equal to the time it takes for the skill to be executed in reality.