sport psychology ch 13

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

imagery
A) For, simulation similar to real sensory experiences (e.g. seeing or hearing)
B) Differs from other sensory experiences bc it occurs entirely within ones mind
C) Allows one to recreate prev pos experiences or picture new ones to mentally prep for performances
D) Use of more than one sense like the kinesthetic sense, the visual sense, the auditory, sense, the tactile sense and the olfactory sense all very helpful (e.g. visual sense to watch someone score a 3, the auditory sense to hear the ball swish into the hoop woosh, the tactile sense to feel a soccer ball or the olfactory sense to smell the freshly cut grass on a soccer field).
E) The kinesthetic sense especially important when athletes use imagery bc it involves feeling our body as it moves in diff positions and is especiall useful in the enhancement of performance.
F) Use of more than one sense helps to create more vivid images making the experience one goes through via imagery more real
G) Attatching various emotional states to ones imagined experiences important as well via the recreation of emotions like joy or pain or thoughts like confidence and concentration
- Imagery can help ctrl these states.
evidence of imagerys effectiveness
A) Demonstrated via anecodotal reports/ppls reports of isolated occurences, case studies, mutkiple-baseline case studies, and psychological intervention packages as well as scientific experiements
case studies related to imagery
1) More scientific approach to prove imagerys effectiveness
2) Involves a researchers close observation, monitoring and recording of a persons behavior ovr a period of tiem.
3) E.g. some earlier and latter case studies displayed the effectiveness of imagery as on eusing a field goal kicker
multiple baseline case studies related to imagery
1) Studies of just a few ppl over a given period time with multiply assessed documenting changes in behavior and performance)
2) Have shown to find pos effects of imagery on performance enhancement and other psychological variables like confidence and coping with anxiety
psychological interview packages
A) Approaches which use a variety of psychological interventions (e.g. self-talk) along with imagery (e.g. suinn used a technique called visuomotor behavioiroal rehearsal a combo btw relaxation and imagery)
B) Has shown to postiviely effect thee performance of athletes in sich sports as basketball, golf, triathletes, figure skaters, golfers, and swimmers and tennis players
C) Improvements however, cannot be attributed to imagery alone
scientific experiements related to imagery
A) Supports the value of imagery in learning and performing motor skills
B) These studies have been conducted cross diff lvls of ability and in many diff sports like basketball, football, kayaking, track and field, swimming, karate, downhill and crodss country skiing, volleyball, tennis and golf
where do athletes imagine?
A) Usually during practice and competition where athletes consistently use imagery ,pre freq in competition than training
B) Interesting fact: most of imagery research practice situation focused (e.g. using imagery to facilitate learning) and athletes tned to use imagery more for performance enhacement (i.e. comeptinmg effectively) especially during precompetition.
when athletes imagine
A) Before, during and after practice, outside of practice and before, during or after competitions
B) More frequently used during practices, than before or afterward and imagery post practice and competitions seems to be underused.
C) Not as frequently used during rehab periods post injury during injury
why athletes imagine
A) Also known as the function (the why) of why athletes imagine as opposed to the content of the images.
B) Pavio-plays both a motivational and cognitive role in the mediation of behavior with the capability of orientation towards gen or specific behavioral goals.
C) In relation to motivation ppl use imagery to visualize specific goals and goal oriented behaviors like winning the PVAC championship.
- Can help ppl adhere to their goals and the training to reach these goals
D) Empirical testing separates motivational general imagery into two categories
1) Motivational general mastery
2) Motivational general arousal
-Imagining performing well to maintain confidence is an ex of MG-M while achieving mental toughness, positivism, and focus has been identified as a possible outcome for MG-M imagery
- pumping up and increasing arousal=example of MGA type of arousal by way of imagery to help achieve relaxation and ctrl
3) motivational specific imagery
- ppl can use imagery to visualize specific goals anf goal oriented behaviors like winning a game.
E) cognitive specific imagery
1) focuses on the performance of specific motor skilss
D) cognitive general imagery
1) focuses on the rehearsal of entire game plans, strategies and routines inherent in competitions.
2) rated as the most effective for strategy learning and development and for strategy execution.
what and how athletes imagine
4 aspects involved
1) imaging the surroundings in which an athletes compete, the pos or neg character of the images, the sense involved in imagery (types of imagery), and the perspective (internal v. external) which is how athletes take in creating imagery
the 4 aspects which display what and how athletes use imagery
surroundings- via using imagery to prpe for an event due to imagining competition surroundings being able to help increase an images vivideness making it more realistic
b) the nature of imagery-via pos imagery having pos effects and neg imagery especially neg effects.
i) situations more prone to neg imagery-
- if it creates too much anxiety
- directs attention to irrelevant factos
- not ctrlable and leads participants to image failure or mistake s
- if It makes atheltes overconfident and cocky
c) type of imagery- basically 4 types visual, kinesthetic, auditory and olfactory with visual and kinesthetic being used the most often and to the same ext.
d) imagery perspective
- usually is either internal (imagery of the execution of a skill from ones own vantage pt like if you had a camera on your head and could only see what you would see if actually executed a particular skill) or external (viewing yourself from the perspective of an outside observer e.g. if a baseball player did this regarding them pitching from an external perspective they would see not only the batter, catcher and umpire but also other fielders) in regards to viewing an image
factors effecting the effectieness of imagery
A) Nature of the task (task involving mostly cognitive components like decision making perception have been shown to bring about the greatest pos benefits)
B) Skill lvl of the performance (imagery is more effective for more experienced players bc they may use imagery more frequently but can help novice performers learn cognitive elements relevant to successful performance of the skill)
C) Imaging ability (probably the most powerful factor influencing the effectiveness of imagery)
D) Using imagery along with physical practice
the five explanations for how imagery works
1) Psychonueromuscular theory
2) Symbolic learning theory
3) Bioinformational theory
4) Triple code model
5) Psychological explanations
the psychonueromscular theory
A) based off the ideomotor principle of imagery which states that imagery facilitates the learning of motor skills due to the nature of neuromuscular activity patterns activated during imaging.
B) Vividly imagined events innervate muscles in partially the same way that physically practicing the movement does
- These slight neuromuscular impulses hypothesized to be identical to those produced during actual performance but reduced in magnitiude b/c the impulses mb so minor that the don't actually produce movement
C) First scientific support of this phenomenon via Edmund Jacobson showed that imagined movements of bending ones arm creates small muscular contractions in the flexor muscles of the arm.
D) According to some electrical activity produced by ones muscle doesn't necc mirror the actual pattern of activity when actually performing said movement
E) Definitive research necc to empirically substantiate how imagery actually works as predicted bby psychonueromuscular theory
F) Murphy-with new imaging technqiues like positron emission tomography etc, we can llook at pics of a persons brain while resting and compare them with pics taken when they are imaging (e.g. when running a 400 M race)
- Pictures show that certain areas of the cerebral cortex more active when ppl use imagery than while resting
G) Found that when ppl imagine starting a movement, various areas of the brain become active like the premotor cortex as te actionis prepped
- Prefrontal cortex as the action is iniated and the cerebellum during the ctlr of movement sequences which req a specific order
symbolic learning theory
A) Sackett-suggests imagery may function as a cvoding syst to help ppl understand and aquire movement patterns
B) When a person creates motor program in the CNS (central nervous syst) a mental blueprint is formed for successful completion of the movement (e.g. doubles tennis match, if a palyer knows their partner will move on a certain shot they will be able to better plan their own course helping the athlete plan their movement patterns.
C) Participants have proven to while usingimagert perform consistently better on primarily cognitive tasks (e.g. QB) than more motoric tasks (e.g. weightlifting)
bioinfo theory
1) Holds that a desc. Of an image conssits of 2 main types of statements
a) Response propositions
- Statements that desc an imagers response to a specific scenario and designed to produce physiological activity (e.g. having a weightlifter feel the weight in their hands as they prep to lift as well as leaving a pounding heart and slight muscular tension as a response to proposition.
E) Response propositions fundamental pt of this theory that an image isn't only a stimulus in ones head which a person responds to but also imagery instruct (especially motivation/gen-arousal) which contains response propositions elicits greater physiological responses (i.e. increase in hear rate) than imagery instructions which only contain stimulus propositions.
b) Stimulus propositions
- Statements that desc specific stimulus featurs of the scenario to be imagined (e.g. a weighlifter at a mjor competition that may imagine the crowds, the bar they are going to lift and the ppl in the audience)
the triple code model
A) the meaning an image has to an individual needs to be incorporated into imagery models
B) highlights an understanduing of three effects essential to imagery (ISM):
1) the image itself- represents the outside world and its objects with a deg og ssensory realism enabling ppl to interact with it as if tey were interacting with the real world
2) the somatic response- act of imagining the results of psycholphysiological changes in the body
3) the meaning of the image that everyone image imparts a definite meaning to individual imagers and the same set of imagery instruct will never produce the same imagery experience for any 2 ppl
psychological explanations of imagery
A) expl the effects of imagery
B) attentional arousal set- theory arguing that imagery functions as a prpe set that assists in the achievement of an optimal arousal lvl which allows performers to focus on task relevant cues and screen out task irrelevant cues
C) imagery helps build psychological skills important ot performance enhancement like increased confidence and occnentration and decreased anxiety (e.g. golfers golfers may have missed a critical putt in the past to lose a torune due to tightening up and getting sitracted by the crows but now sees themselves as taking a deep breath going through the preshot routine and feeling good about making the putt and in his imagery sees himself sinking the putt and winning the tournament).
D) Expl. How imagery can serve a motivational function through helping performers focus on pos outcomes (e.g. improving on prev performance)
uses of imagery
A) To improve concentration (e.g. imagining yourself in a situation where you would normally lose your concentration like after airballing a wide open jumpshot followed by imagining yourself composed and focused on what to do next). Also will lead to helping ppl be more aware of competitive cues which can contribute to faster decision making and improved execution of individual or team tactics.
B) Enhances motivation (e.g. someone in a fitness class imagining themselves as healthier and improving ones physical appearance)
C) In building confidence (e.g. imagining oneself having a good race with a good time and being excited about the time they got)
D) Ctrls emotional responses (e.g to create higher lvls of arousal like getting pumped up, if an athlete is feeling lethargic or gets too uptight)
E) Acquiring, practicing and correcting sports skills (e.g. imagining oneself practicing a specific sport skill like shooting free-throws or 1 can pin pt skills in ones mind and visualize correcting them)
F) Auqring and practicing strategies (e.g. a QB visualizing diff defenses and playus that they would call to counteract)
G) Prepping for competition (e.g. shooting warm up layups)
H) Coping with pain and injury (e.g. imaging doing practice skills to help facilitate recovery)
I) Problem solving (if a gymnast experiences trouble on specific aspects of their floor routine they can visualize what they are doing now and compare it with what they did in the past when they did not perform as successfully)
keys to effective imagery
A) Vivideness (clear)
1) Used by good imagers via all their senses creating as close as possibler the actual epxeirence in ones mind paying attention to environmental details of the place one is performing/playing @
2) Important to try to feel the anxiety, concentration, frustration, exhilaration or anger associated with ones performance while performing (all of this will help make the performance more realistic)
3) If one has trouble imagining thing sclearly and vividly they should first try to imagine things familiar to themselves (e.g. ones rooms furniture) followed by using the place where you compete in sport and practice.
4) Three good exercises to work on ones vivideness include:
a) Imagining ones home
b) Imagining a positive performance of a skill
c) Imagining a positive performance by visually recalling how you looked when performing well, the sounds heard while you played including your internal dialogue with yourself and your internal response when facing adversity during a competition/game and all the kinesthetic sense you have when playing well (like how your ft and hands felt)
B) Ctrlability
1) The ability to manipulate ones imagery images to get them to do what they want
2) Helps one picture what they want to accomplish instead of seeing themselves make mistakes (e.g. scoring a buzzer beater shot instead of airballing a layup)
3) Practice=key to do this successfully
4) Suggested exercises to do this well include:
a) Ctrling ones performance by working on a specific skill that has prev given you more trouble than others in the past (e.g a basketball player imagining seeing and feeling themself shooting a freethrow perfectly followed by working on a skill that has given you trouble in the past like shooting 2 free-throws at the end of a game where your team is down by 1
b) Ctrling performance against a tough opponent (e.g. a QB imagining situations when they are getting the best of their opponent by seeing themselves cslling correct audibles at the ln of scrimmage to beat each defense while making sure to ctrl all aspect of their movements and their decisions
c) Ctrling ones emotions (e.g. situations where gets angry or something like that like blowing a breakaway layup by recreating the situation especially the feelings accompanied by it like Sarachek)
developing an imagery training program
A) Can be done by using the following guidelines:
1) The phys nature of the movement
2) The specifics of the environment
3) The type of task
4) The timing of the movement
5) Learning the content of the movement
6) The emotion (meaning to the individual) of the movement
7) The internal or external perspective of the person
B) Imagery very effective when players were the clothing they would wear when playing their sports along with doing imagery on the actual field.
C) The motor imagery integrative model posits 4 specific areas and then some subareas which imagery can be used to affect various aspects of sport performance:
D) Good to have tailor imagery programs to help exercisers or athletes with their indiivudal needs, abilities and interests
E) Imagery skill lvl should be evaluated
1) Done through diff tests
a) Betts questionnaire on mental imagery
b) The vividness of movement imagery questionnaire developed to measure visual imagery along with kinesthetic imagery
c) The sport imagery questionnaire containing questions regarding the freq that ppl use various types of imagery (e.g. imaging sport skills, strategies of play, focus, or the arousal that may accompany performance)
- Freq items in the SIQ indicate that athletes found these specific imagery techniques and strategies effective and in further ext. of this test researchers found that that the function not content of images most critical
F) Implementing feedback into imagery training through practicing in many settings, aiming for relaxed concentration (e.g. deep breathing), establishing realistic expectations and sufficient motivation, use of vivid and ctrlable images, application of imagery to specific situations (e.g. if you are having trouble with free-throws imagery related to improving this skill), maintaining pos focus, consideration of the use of DVD, and other audio video rec to watch or listen to, including execution and outcome (end result of skills), and image timing (e.g. in real time the time spent imaging a specific skill shuld be equal to the time it takes for the skill to be executed in reality.
the content of imagery in youth sports
A) Btw ages 7-14 5 diff categories of imagery found:
1) Freq ad duration of sessions e.g. every time I do gymnastics I do imagery
2) The effectiveness of the imagery e.g. I think helps me believe in myself
3) The nature of the imagery as pos or neg (e.g. if you land a jump in your head that you haven't been able to do on the ice it makes you happy or alternatively " I sometimes see myself hity thr bottom of the pool on a dive (neg)."
4) The surrounding venue, spectators, weather (e.g when I walk out onto the mat I can see all the parents and children."
5) The diff types of imagery like visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile (e.g. when I imagine skiing I at times hear the crowd and even my skis against the snow)
B) Diff in the age groups
- 11 yr olds able to show imagery ability similar to adults
- Older children (11-14) had structured imagery training while younger athletes ages 7-10 had mostly spotaenous imagery
- Only 11-14 yr olds used kinesthetic imagery while athletes cross the age range used visual and auditory imagery
good times to use imagery
A) Before and after practice for est. 10 min sessions the amount of time most athletes can concentrate for
- To focus concentration and get ready before practice athletes need to visualize the skills, routines and plays they expect to perform and after each practice they should review hthe skills and strategies they worked on
B) Before and after competition depending on the athlete before or after practice could be better time and the amount of time 1 does this i.e. 1-2 hrs before the competition
C) During the " offseason" even though it may be done for less time than in the reg season
D) During breaks in action, the dfead times post an athlete performs is an ideal opportunity
E) During personal time
F) When recovering from injury (e.g. when healing from a broken leg or even for a runner when they go through a pain threshold)
G) For imagery to be effective it needs to be built into the daily routine