46 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 11 Feeding the World - Hug

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Under nutrition
Chronic hunger; not consuming enough calories to be healthy
Malnourished
Regardless of the number of calories one consumes, their diets lack the correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals
Food security
Condition in which people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life
Food insecurity
Condition in which people do not have adequate access to food
Famine
Condition in which food security is so extreme that large numbers of deaths occur in a given area over a relatively short period
Anemia
Iron deficiency; most widespread nutritional deficiency in world
Overnutrition
Ingestion of too many calories and improper foods; can cause a person to become overweight
Meat
Second largest component of the human diet; livestock (beef, veal and lamb) and poultry (chicken and duck)
Industrial agriculture/agribusiness
Agriculture that applies the techniques of mechanization and standardization
Energy subsidy
Energy input per calorie of food produced
Green Revolution
Shift in farming methods
New management techniques and mechanization as well as the triad of fertilization, irrigation and improved crop varieties
Economies of scale
Observation that average costs of production fall as output increases
Waterlogging
Occurs when soil remains underwater for prolonged periods, impairs root growth because roots cannot get oxygen
Salinization
Occurs when the small amounts of salt in irrigation water become highly concentrated on soil surface through evaporation
Organic fertilizers
Composed of organic matter from plants and animals
Synthetic fertilizers
Produced commercially, normally with the use of fossil fuels
Mono cropping
An agricultural method that utilizes large plantings of a single species or variety
Pesticide
A substance, either natural or synthetic that kills or controls organisms that people consider pests
Insecticide
A pesticide that targets species of insects and other invertebrates
Herbicides
Target plant species that compare with crops
Broad spectrum pesticides
They kill many different types of pests
Selective pesticides
Focus on a narrower range of organisms
Persistent
They remain in the environment for a long time
Non persistent
They break down relatively rapid, usually in weeks to months
Bio accumulation
Something building up over time in the fatty tissues of predators
Pesticide treadmill
Cycle of pesticide development, followed by pest resistance, followed by new pesticide development
Conventional agriculture
Applies the techniques of mechanization and standardization
Shifting agriculture
Involves clearing land and using it for only a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients
Desertification
Transformation of arable, productive land to desert or unproductive land due to climate change or destructive land use
Nomadic grazing
Feeding herds of animals by moving them to seasonally productive feeding grounds, often over long distances
Sustainable agriculture
Fulfills need for food and fiber while enhancing quality of the soil, minimizing use of nonrenewable resources and allowing economic viability for the farmer
Intercropping
Two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction between them
Crop rotation
Achieves the same effect by rotating the crop species in a field from season to season
Agroforestry
Intercropping trees with vegetables; allows vegetation of different heights, including trees, to act as windbreaks and catch soil that might otherwise be blown away
Contour plowing
Plowing and harvesting parallel to the topographic contours of the land;
Helps prevent erosion by water while still allowing for the practical advantages of plowing
No-till agriculture
Designed to avoid soil degradation that comes with conventional agricultural techniques
Integrated pest management (IPM)
Uses a variety of techniques designed to minimize pesticide inputs
Organic agriculture
Production of crops without the use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
Large indoor or outdoor structures designed for maximum output
Fishery
Commercially harvestable population of fish within a particular ecological region
Fishery collapse
Decline of a fish population by 90% or more
Bycatch
Unintentional catch of non target species
Individual transferable quotas (ITQs)
Fishery management program in which individual fishers are given a total allowable catch of fish in a season that they can either catch or sell
Aquaculture
Farming aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish and seaweeds
Annual plants
Live only one season and must be replanted each yea, which causes enormous disruption to soil (Example: wheat and corn)
Perennial plants
Live for multiple years so there is no need to plow fields each year for replanting

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