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173 terms

A&P Final

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Filtration forces water out of capillaries into tissue spaces, and the name for this waters changes from:
Plasma to fluid
Most of the water output from the body is in the form of:
Urine
Most of the water intake for the body is an form of:
beverages
All of the cations except:
bicarbonate ions
The function of ADH is to:
increase the reabsorption of water by the kidneys
An electrolyte s a substance that, in solution, dissociates into its
positive and negative ions
Water will move by osmosis to am area where there are more electrolytes
Electrolytes
Regulation of the water balance of the body is a function of the:
hypothalamus
To compensate for a state of dehydration, urinary output will
decrease
The direct effect on the kidneys of the hormone aldosterone is to:
increase the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium
Proteins are significant anions which of these fluids?
plasma and intracellular fluid
Extracellular fluid includes all of these except:
water within
The absorption of calcium ions by the small intestine and kidneys is increased by
Parathyroid hormone
The normal pH range of blood is
7.35-7.45
The mechanism with the greatest capacity to correct normal pH imbalance is the
kidneys
The mechanism that works most rapidly to correct pH imbalance is the
buffer system
the bicarbonate buffer system buffer HCI by reacting form
NaCI and H2CO3
An amino acid is able to buffer a strong acid when
the amine group picks up an excess hydrogen ion
A state of acidosis affects the
CNS, causing confusion and coma
The respiratory system will help compensate for a metabolic acidosis by
increasing the respiratory
To compensate for acidosis, the kidney will excrete:
more hydrogen ions
An untreated pattern with diabetes who is in a state of ketoacidosis will:
be breathing rapidly
The hormone that increases renal excretion of sodium ions
ANP
In tissue fluid and plasma, the most abundant cation is:
Sodium
The intracellular cation that is essential for repolarization of neurons and muscle cells is
Potassium
The hormone that is most important in daily regulation of cell resorption is
Thyroxine
Heart is distributed from active organs to cooler parts of the body by:
blood
The average human body temperature is F and C is:
98.6F/37C
In a cold environment, the arterioles in the dermis will:
constrict to conserve heat
When sweating take place, excess body heat is lost in the
evaporation of sweat
When the body is at rest, the skeletal muscles produce a significant amount of heat because of:
Muscle tone
From the respiratory tract, a small amount of heat is lost in:
exhaled water vapor
The movement of air across the skin results in heat loss by the process of
convection
The part of the brain that regulates body temperature is the:
hypothalamus
The body's responses to a warm environment includes all except"
increased muscle tone
Chemicals produced during inflammation that cause fevers are called
endogenous pyrogens
A fever may be beneficial because
the growth of some pathogens may be inhibited
The term for synthesis reactions is
anabolism
The Kerbs cycle and the cytochrome transport system take place in which part of the cell?
mitochondria
The most important synthesis uses for glucose are:
pentose sugars and glycogen
Most of the ATP produced during cell respiration is produced in which stage?
cytochrome transport system
The carbon dioxide produced in cell respiration is produced in in which statge?
Krebs cycle
The most important synthesis uses for amino acids are
proteins and non-essential amino acids
Most of the ATP produced in cell respiration is produced during which stage?
cytochrome transport system
All of these vitamins are necessary for cell respiration except:
Vitamin D
The basal metabolic rate is the term for the body's heat production when the body is
at rest
In order to be used for energy production, amino acids may be changed to all of these except:
fatty acids
In order to be used for energy production, fatty acids and glycerol may be changed to all except:
glucose
In the cytochrome transport system acidosis is prevented by formation of
water
A meal consists of 20 grams of starch, 20 grams of protein, and 10 grams of fat has
250
Vitamins can best be describe as:
chemicals often necessary for the functioning enzymes
The hormone that lowers blood glucose level enabling cells to take in glucose is
Insulin
The two hormones that regulate blood calcium level are:
parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
The hormone that initiates egg or sperm production is
FSH
In Men the hormone necessary for maturation of sperm is
testosterone
In women the hormone that causes ovulation is
LH
Two hormone that cause the liver to change glycogen to glucose are:
glucagon and epinephrine
The hormone that increases protein synthesis and that use of all three food types for energy is:
thyroxine
The hormone that slows peristalsis and dilates the bronchioles
epinephrine
The hormone that has an anti-inflammaory effect is
cortisol
The hormone that increases water reabsorption by the Kidneys is:
ADH
The hormone that increases calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is
PTH
The hormone that increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys is
Aldostrone
In women, the two hormones that promotes growth of blood vessels in the endoetrium are
estrogen and progesterone
In women, the hormone that promotes growth of corpus luteum is
LH
The hormone that stimulates milk production in the mammary gland
prolactin
The hormone that causes strong contractions of the uterus during labor is
Oxytocin
The hormone that increases the use of fats and excess amino acids for energy while sparing glucose for use by the brain
Cortisol
Two hormones that help maintain normal b/p by maintaing normal volume are:
ADH and aldosterone
Localized hormones that are synthesized from the phospholipids of cell membranes are called
protagladins
Steroid hormones are believed to exert their effect by stimulating the synthesis of
Proteins
The two - messagers mechanism of hormone action that describes the action of
protein hormones
The hormone produced by the ovaries or testes that inhibits the secretion of FSH is:
Inhibin
The hormone that brings about sleep is
Melatonin
The hormone that increases excretion of potassium by kidneys
Alderstone
The secretion of insulin in response to fluctuating blood glucose level is an
Negative feedback mechanism
Secretion of the hormone of the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the
hypothalamus
The stimulus for secretion of glucagon
hypoglycemia
The functions of epinephrin are very similar to the function of
the sympathetic nervous system
The stimulates for secretion of aldosterone is
low blood sodium level
A renal corpuscle consists of
a glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
The kidneys are located behind the
peritoneum
All of these are found at the hilus of a kidney except the
Uretha
The cavity within the kidney collects urine is the
Renal Pelvis
The renal vein take blood from the kidney to the
Abdominal arota
All of these parts of the renal tubule except the
distal convoluted tubule
If body fluids are becoming too acidic, the kidneys will excrete more of these ions in urine
hydrogen ions
The hormone that directly increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys:
ADH
The process of glomerular filtration takes place from the
glomerulus to bowman's;s capsule
The process of tubular reabsorption takes place from the
renal tubule to peritubular cappilaried
The renal pyramids make up the
renal medulla
Renal Filtrate differs from blood plasma in this way
there are no blood cells filtrate
When the blood level oxygen decreases, the kidney secrete
Erythropoietin
When B/P decreases, the decrease, the kidney secrete
Renin
The part of the Urinary bladder that actually eliminates the urine is the:
detrusor muscle
Voluntary control of urination is provided by the
external urethral sphincter
In tubular reabsorpion, glucose and amino acids are reasbsored by the process of:
Active transport
The glomerular filtration rate will decrease if
blood flow through the kidneys decreases
Urea is a nitrogenous water product that comes from metabolism of
amino acids
Normal values for daily urinary output and pH of urine might be
1.5 liters/6.0
Urine is propelled through a ureter by
smooth muscle
The Kidneys are protected from mechanical injury by the
rib cage and adipose tissue
If body fluids are becoming too alkaline, the kidney will excrete more these ions in urine
bicarbonate ions
Creatinine is a nitrogenous waste product that comes from energy metabolism in
the muscles
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced by the ___________ and causes he kidneys to excrete __________________.
heart and sodium ions
The vitamin produced by the normal flora of the colon in amounts sufficient to meet a person's daily need is:
K
Backup of food from the small intestine to the stomach is prevented by the
pyloric sphincter
All of the following are accessory organs of digestion except
Stomach
Mechanical digestion includes all of the following except:
Conversion of starch to matlose
The hard chewing surface of a tooth is formed by
enamel
The only voluntary aspect of swallowing is
elevation of the tongue
The functions of saliva include all of the except
protein digestion
A tooth is anchored in its socket in the jaw by the
periodental membrane
The layer of the alimentary tube that is responsible for peristalsis is the
external muscle layer
In the gastric mucosa, the parietal cells secrete
pepsin
The liver Synthesis all these except
hemoglobin
When food reaches the stomach, secretion of gastric juice is stimulated by the hormone
gastrin
Bile is stored in the
gallbladder
Bile and pancreatic juice carried to the duodenum by the
common bile duct
Bicarbonate pancreatic juice is important to neutralize hydrochloric enters the
duodenum
The digestion of protein involves all of these except
amylase from the pancreas
The capillary networks and lacteals in the villi of the small intestine are important for
absorption of nutrients
The absorption of amino acids and glucose into the capillary networks of the villi is accomplished by the process of
active transport
The functions of the large intestine include all these except
digestion of starch
By the process of transmission, the liver synthesizes the
non-essential amino acids
The stimulates for the defection reflex is
stretching the rectum
The liver that stores all of these except
fat
The liver is stable to detoxify potentially harmful substances by means of the synthesis specific
enzymes
Greater surface area in the small intestine is provided by all of these except
rugae
The "brush border" refers to the
microvilli of the small intestine
The function of the enteroendocrine cells of the stomach is the production of
gastrin
The enteric nervous system is found in all of these organs except the
liver
In the small intestine, the Peyer's patches are:
The lymph nodules
Contraction of the gallbladder is stimulated by:
Cholecystokinin
The cells of the liver that phagocytize pathogens are
macrophages and kupffer cells
The upper respiratory system tract includes all of these except the
primary bronchi
During swallowing, the larynx is covered by the
epiglottis
During swallowing, the nasopharynx is covered by the
soft plate
The trachea is kept open by which tissue?
cartilage
In the nasal cavities and trachea, mucus and pathogens are swept to the pharynx by
cilitaed epithelium
The part of the pharynx that is a passageway for air only is the
nasopharynx
Inaled air passes from the trachea to the
primary bronchi
Cartilage supports and keeps open all of these structures except the
bronchioles
The serous fluid between the pleural membranes keeps the membranes together and
prevent friction
The primary bronchi and the pulmonary blood vessels enter the lungs at the
hilus on the medial side
The tissue fluid that lines the alveoli is important to
permit gas diffusion of gasses
Within the alvoli, surface tension is decreased and inflation is possible because of the presence
pulmonary surfactant
The respiratory centers in the brain is located in the
medulla and pons
During inhalation, the thoracic cavity is enlarged from the top to bottom by contraction of the
Diaphragm which moves down
In the alvoli, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are:
high Po2 and low PCO2
Intrapulmonic pressure is the air pressure within
bronchial tree and alveoli
Irritants on the mucosa of the larynx are removed by
the cough reflux
Most Oxygen is transported in the blood
bonded to hemoglobin in RBCs
Most carbon dioxide in transported in the blood
as bicarbonate ions in the plasma
Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the
systemic capillaries and body tissue
The factors that increase the release of oxygen from hemoglobin in systemic capillaries include all these except
low temperature
The air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation is called
residual air
The gas that is the most important chemical regulator of respiration is
CO2 because it presents in excess it lowers pH of bod fluids
The receptors that detect a decrease in the oxygen level of the blood are located in the
carotid and aortic bodies
If pneumonia decreases the exchange of gases in the lugs, the resulting pH imbalance is called
respiratory acidosis
The nasal mucosa has all of these functions except:
increasing the oxygen content of the air
All of these will increase physiological dead space except
stuffed up sinus
Anatomic dead space includes all of these except
potential pleural space
The expansibility of the lungs and chest wall is called
compliance
To compensate for metabolic acidosis, respiration will
increases to exhale more CO2
The lymphatic vessel that return lymph to the left subclavin vein is the
thoracic duct
Tissue fluid is called lymph when it enters
lymph capillaries
In larger lymph vessels, backflow of lymph is prevented by
Valves
An imporant function of the lymphatic system is to return tissue fluid to the
blood
The masses of lymphatic tissues located below the epithelum of mucous membranes are called
lymph nodules
The lymph nodes that remove pathogens in the lymph cpmong from the legs are called
inguinal nodes
Lymph nodes and nodles and the spleen are made primarily of WBCs called
lymphoyctes
Fixed macrophages of the spleen phagocytize old RBC's and form
bilirubin