The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriophage is
Feedback inhibition differs from repression because feedback inhibition
Stops the action of preexisting enzymes
Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance by Mutation Insertion of transposons Acquiring plasmids All of the above
All of the above
Suppose you inoculated three flasks of minimal salts broth with E. coli. Flask A contains glucose. Flask B contains glucose and lactose. Flask C contains lactose. After a few hours of incubation, you test the flasks for the presence of β-galactosidase. Which flask(s) do you predict will have this enzyme?
Plasmids differ from transposons because plasmids
Are self-replicated outside the chromosome
The mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the lac operon is
The mechanism by which lactose controls the lac operon is
Two daughter cells are most likely to inherit which one of the following from the parent cell? A change in a nucleotide in mRNA A change in a nucleotide in tRNA A change in a nucleotide in rRNA A change in a nucleotide in DNA A change in a protein
A change in a nucleotide in DNA
Which of the following is not a method of horizontal gene transfer? Binary fission Conjugation Integration of a transposon Transduction Transformation
Restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that
Phage DNA is destroyed is a host cell
The DNA probe, 3'GGCTTA, will hybridize with DNA containing
Which of the following is the fourth basic step of genetic engineering?
The following steps are used to make cDNA. Which is the second step? RNA processing to remove introns Reverse transcription Transcription Translation
RNA processing to remove introns
If you put a gene in a virus, the next step in genetic engineering would be
You have a small gene that you want replicated by PCR. You add radioactively labeled nucleotides to PCR thermalcycler. After three replication cycles, what percentage of the DNA single-strands are radioactively labeled?
Pieces of human DNA stored in yeast cells.
A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid.
Self-replicating DNA for transmitting a gene from one organism to another.
A gene that hybridizes with mRNA.
The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient as naked DNA is solution is
A gene is best defined as
A sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? DNA polymerase - makes a molecule of DNA from a DNA template RNA polymerase - makes a molecule of RNA from an RNA template DNA ligase - joins segments of DNA Transposase - insertion of DNA segments into DNA DNA gyrase - coils and twists DNA
RNA polymerase - makes a molecule of RNA from an RNA template
Which of the following statements is false? DNA polymerase joins nucleotides in one direction only. The leading strand of DNA is made continuously. The lagging strand of DNA is started by an RNA primer. DNA replication proceeds in one direction around the bacterial chromosome. Multiple replication forks are possible on a bacterial chromosome.
DNA replication proceeds in one direction around the bacterial chromosome.
In the figure above, which colonies are streptomycin-resistant and leucine-requiring?
In sample with strep added --> no dots in sample with leucine added --> dots in sample with both added --> dots sample with neither added --> no dots (requires leucine!)
In the table below, what will be the result of conjugation between cultures 1 and 2? Culture 1: F+, leucine+, histidine+ Culture 2: F−, leucine−, histidine−
1 will remain the same; 2 will become F+, Genotype remains same: leucine−, histidine−
Conjugation differs from reproduction because conjugation __________.
Transfers DNA horizontally, to cells in the same generation.
The necessary ingredients for DNA synthesis can be mixed together in a test tube. The DNA polymerase is from Thermus aquaticus and the template is from a human cell. The DNA synthesized would be most similar to
The mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the arabinose operon.
The mechanism by which the presence of arabinose controls the arabinose operon.
If you knew the sequence of nucleotides within a gene, which one of the following could you determine with the most accuracy?
The primary structure of the protein
The following steps are used to make DNA fingerprints. What is the third step? A) Perform electrophoresis. B) Collect DNA. C) Add stain. D) Digest with a restriction enzyme.
E) Lyse cells.
Digest with a restriction enzyme.
Which of the following can be used to make recombinant DNA? Protoplast fusion Tungsten "bullets" Microinjection Transformation All of the above.
All of the above.
If you have inserted a gene in the Ti, the next step in genetic engineering is
Inserting Ti into Agrobacterium.
Suicide genes can be controlled by the fimbriae-gene operator. This would result in the death of
Cells making fimbriae
Pieces of DNA stored in yeast cells are called a
A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a
Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is a
A source of heat-stable DNA polymerase is
Which organism naturally possesses the Ti plasmid?
Which organism degrades PCBs and has been engineered to produce BT toxin?
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology differs from Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology in that the former
Groups bacteria according to phylogenetic relationships
Bacillus and Lactobacillus are not in the same order. This indicates that which one of the following is not sufficient to assign an order to a taxon?
Which of the following is used to classify organisms into the Kingdom of Fungi?
Absorptive; possessing cell wall; prokaryotic
Which of the following is not true about scientific nomenclature?
Names vary with geographical location.
You could identify an unknown bacterium by all of the following except
Percentage of guanine + cytosine
The wall less mycoplasmas are considered to be related to gram-positive bacteria. Which of the following would provide the most compelling evidence of this?
They share common rRNA sequences.
Into which group would you place a multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives inside the human liver?
Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan wall surrounded by an outer membrane?
Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)
1. 9 + 2 flagella 2. 70S ribosome 3. fimbria 4. nucleus 5. peptidoglycan 6. plasma membrane Which is (are) found in all three domains? 2, 6 5 2, 4, 6 1, 3, 5 all six
1. 9 + 2 flagella 2. 70S ribosome 3. fimbria 4. nucleus 5. peptidoglycan 6. plasma membrane Which is (are) found only in prokaryotes?
Similar _____ are grouped into a _____; which are are grouped into a_____; which are grouped int a ______; which are grouped into_______;which are grouped into_______;which are grouped into_______;
Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom Dear King Philip Can Only Find Green Socks
All of the following are true about archaea except
They evolved before bacteria.
Which of the following characterizes the Domain Bacteria?
Prokaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids
If two organisms have similar rRNA sequences, you can conclude all of the following except A) They will have similar G-C ratios. B) They evolved from a common ancestor. C) They will both ferment lactose. D) They are related. E) None of the above.
They will both ferment lactose.
Amino acid sequencing provides indirect information about
Nucleotide bases making up a gene.
The phylogenetic classification of bacteria is based on
All of the following are reasons for classifying viruses in the three domains and not in a fourth domain except Viruses are obligate parasites. Viruses direct anabolic pathways of host cells. Some viruses can incorporate their genome into a host's genome. Viruses are not composed of cells.
Viruses are not composed of cells.
Which of the following best defines a strain?
A group of cells all derived from a single parent.
Serological testing is based on the fact that
Antibodies react specifically with an antigen.
Phage typing is based on the fact that
Bacterial viruses attack specific cells.
In the figure above, which figure shows the most closely related organisms?
The completely parallel lines
If you Gram-stained the bacteria that live in the human intestine, you would expect to find mostly
Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Which of the following does not belong with the others?
Pathogenic bacteria can be Motile Rods Cocci Anaerobic All of the above
all of the above
Which of the following is an intracellular parasite? Rickettsia Mycobacterium Bacillus Staphylococcus Streptococcus
Which of the following terms is the most specific? bacillus Bacillus (italicized) Gram-positive Endospore-forming rods and cocci Anaerobic
Which one of the following does not belong with the others? Enterococcus Lactobacillus Staphylococcus Streptococcus None of the above
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? Anaerobic endospore-forming gram-positive rods - Clostridium Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods - Escherichia Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods - Shigella Pleomorphic gram-positive rods -Corynebacterium Spirochete- Helicobacter
Spirochete - Helicobacter
Spirillum is not classified as a spirochete because spirochetes
Possess axial filaments
When Legionella was newly discovered, it was classified with the pseudomonads because
It is an aerobic gram-negative rod
Cyanobacteria differ from purple and green phototrophic bacteria because cyanobacteria
Produce oxygen during photosynthesis
Which of the following are found primarily in the intestines of humans? Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci Aerobic, helical bacteria Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods Gram-positive cocci None of the above
Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods
Which of the following is a characteristic of Clostridium? Endospore-forming rod Mycobacteria Gram-negative aerobic cocci Anaerobic gram-negative rods None of the above
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the regular, nonsporing gram-positive rods? Aerotolerant Fermentative metabolism Don't produce endospores Nonpathogenic None of the above
Which of the following is not a characteristic of Neisseria? Requires X and V factors Cocci Gram-negative Oxidase-positive None of the above
Requires X and V factors
Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can be easily differentiated in a laboratory by which one of the following?
Growth in high salt concentrations
Which of the following is not gram-negative? Pseudomonas Salmonella Streptococcus Bacteroides Rickettsia
Escherichia coli belongs to the
Which one of the following does not belong with the others? Bacillus Escherichia Lactobacillus Staphylococcus Streptococcus
A primary difference between cyanobacteria and purple and green phototrophic bacteria is
Electron donor for CO2 reduction.
You have isolated a prokaryotic cell. The first step in identification is a(n)
How many phyla are represented in the following list of organisms: Echinococcus, Cyclospora, Aspergillus, Taenia, Toxoplasma, Trichinella?
1. metacercaria 2. redia 3. adult 4. miracidium 5. cercaria Put the above stages in order of development, beginning with the egg:
4, 2, 5, 1, 3
1. metacercaria 2. redia 3. adult 4. miracidium 5. cercaria If a snail is the first intermediate host of a parasite with these stages, which stage would be found in the snail?
Which of the following statements about yeasts are true? (1) Yeasts are fungi. (2) Yeasts can form pseudohyphae. (3) Yeasts produce asexually by budding. (4) Yeasts are facultatively anaerobic. (5) All yeasts are pathogenic. (6) All yeasts are dimorphic.
Which event follows cell fusion in an ascomycete?
Fleas are the intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum tapeworm and dogs are the definitive host. Which stage of the parasite could be found in the flea?
These are obligate intracellular parasites that lack mitochondria.
These are nonmotile parasites with special organelles for penetrating host tissue.
These photosynthetic organisms can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning.
All of the following statements about fungi are true except All fungi are unicellular. All fungi have eukaryotic cells. Fungi are heterotrophic. Most fungi are aerobic. Few fungi are pathogenic to humans.
All fungi are unicellular.
All of the following statements about helminths are true except They are heterotrophic. They are multicellular animals. They have eukaryotic cells. All are parasites. Some have male and female reproductive organs in one animal.
All are parasites.
All of the following are true about protozoa except They have eukaryotic cells. All make cysts. They may reproduce sexually. They may have flagella or cilia. None of the above.
All make cysts.
Fungi, more often than bacteria, are responsible for decomposition of plant material because
They can tolerate low-moisture conditions.
Which of the following statements is not true? A lichen doesn't exist if the fungal and algal partners are separated. Lichens are parasites. In a lichen, the alga produces carbohydrates. In a lichen, the fungus provides the holdfast. Lichens are important soil producers.
Lichens are parasites.
Which of the following pairs are mismatched? 1. Arthrospore 1 formed by fragmentation 2. Sporangiospore 1 formed within hyphae 3. Conidiospore 1 formed in a chain 4. Blastoconidium 1 formed from a bud 5. Chlamydospore 1 formed in a sac
2 and 5
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? Dinoflagellates - paralytic shellfish poisoning Brown algae - algin Red algae - agar Diatoms - petroleum Green algae - prokaryotic
Green algae - prokaryotic
Transmission of helminthic diseases to humans is usually by
All of the following statements about algae are true except They use light as their energy source. They use CO2 as their carbon source. They produce oxygen from hydrolysis of water. All are unicellular. Some are capable of sexual reproduction.
All are unicellular.
Which one of the following does not belong with the others? Cryptosporidium Entamoeba Giardia Plasmodium Trypanosoma
Place the following in the most likely order for biosynthesis o a bacteriophage. 1. phage lysozyme 2. mRNA 3. DNA 4. viral proteins 5. DNA polymerase
2, 5, 3, 4, 1
The molecule serving as mRNA can be incorporated in the newly synthesized virus capsids of all of the following except + strand RNA picornaviruses + strand RNA togaviruses − strand RNA rhabdoviruses double-stranded RNA reoviruses double-stranded DNA herpesviruses
- strand RNA rhabdoviruses
A virus with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
Synthesizes double-strand RNA from an RNA template
Which of the following would be the first step in the biosynthesis of a virus with reverse transcriptase? A complementary strand of RNA must be synthesized Double-stranded RNA must be synthesized A complementary strand of DNA must be synthesized from an RNA template A complementary strand of DNA must be synthesized from a DNA template None of the above
A complementary strand of DNA must be synthesized from an RNA template
An example of lysogeny in animals could be Slow viral infections Latent viral infections T-even bacteriophages Infections resulting in cell death None of the above
Latent viral infections
The ability of a virus to infect an organism is regulated by The host species The type of cells The availability of an attachment site Cell factors necessary for viral replication All of the above
All of the above
Which of the following statements is not true? Viruses contain DNA of RNA The nucleic acid of a virus is surrounded by protein coat Viruses multiply inside living cells using viral mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes Viruses cause the synthesis of specialized infectious elements Viruses multiply inside living cells
Viruses multiply inside living cells using viral mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes
Place the following in the order in which they are found in a host cell 1. capsid proteins 2. infective phage particles 3. phage nucleic acid
3, 1, 2
Which of the following does not initiate DNA synthesis? A double-stranded DNA virus (Poxviridae) A DNA virus with reverse transcriptase (Hepadnaviridae) An RNA virus with reverse transcriptase (Retroviridae) A single-stranded RNA virus (Togaviridae) None of the above
A single-stranded RNA virus (Togaviridae)
A viral species is not defined on the basis of the disease symptoms it causes. The best example of this is Polio Rabies Hepatitis Chickenpox ad shingles Measles
In which of the following ways do viruses differ from bacteria? Viruses are filterable. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. Viruses don't have any nucleic acid. Viruses are not composed of cells. All of the above.
Viruses are not composed of cells.
Which of the following provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals? They are not composed of cells. They are filterable. They cannot reproduce themselves outside of a host. They cause diseases similar to those caused by chemicals. They are chemically simple.
They cannot reproduce themselves outside of a host.
Which of the following is not true about spikes? They are used for penetration. They are used for absorption. They may cause hemagglutination. They are only found on enveloped viruses. None of the above.
They are used for penetration.
Which of the following is not used as a criterion to classify viruses? Biochemical tests Morphology Nucleic acid Size Number of capsomeres
Which of the following is not a method of culturing viruses? In laboratory animals In culture media In embryonated eggs In cell culture None of the above
In culture media
What does a complex virus look like?
Long Spider with diamond on its head
An infectious protein is a Bacteriophage Prion Retrovirus Viroid None of the above
An envelope is acquired during which of the following steps? Penetration Adsorption Uncoating Release None of the above
**3d Diamond, spider diamond, 2d diamond w angry cloud, angry cloud In the figure above, the structures illustrated are composed of
Which of the following statements is not true? E. coli never causes disease. E. coli provides vitamin K for its host. E. coli often exists in a mutual relationship with humans. E. coli gets nutrients from intestinal contents.
E. coli never causes disease.
Which of the following is not one Koch's postulates? The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease. The pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture from the diseased host. The pathogen from pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal. The disease must be transmitted from a diseased animal to a healthy, susceptible animal by some form of contact. The pathogen must be isolated in pure culture from an experimentally infected lab animal.
The disease must be transmitted from a diseased animal to a healthy, susceptible animal by some form of contact.
A Maryland woman was hospitalized with dehydration; Vibio cholerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides were isolated form the patient. She had neither traveled outside the U.S. nor eaten raw shellfish during the preceding month. She had attended a party two days before her hospitalization. Two other people at the party had acute diarrheal illness and elevated levels of serum antibodies against Vibrio. Everyone at the party ate crabs and rice pudding in coconut milk. Crabs left over from this party were served at a second party. One of the 20 people at the second party had onset of mild diarrhea. Specimens from 14 of these people were negative for virbiocidal antibodies. The description above is an example of what type of transmission
A Maryland woman was hospitalized with dehydration; Vibio cholerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides were isolated form the patient. She had neither traveled outside the U.S. nor eaten raw shellfish during the preceding month. She had attended a party two days before her hospitalization. Two other people at the party had acute diarrheal illness and elevated levels of serum antibodies against Vibrio. Everyone at the party ate crabs and rice pudding in coconut milk. Crabs left over from this party were served at a second party. One of the 20 people at the second party had onset of mild diarrhea. Specimens from 14 of these people were negative for virbiocidal antibodies.The etiologic agent of the disease is
A Maryland woman was hospitalized with dehydration; Vibio cholerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides were isolated form the patient. She had neither traveled outside the U.S. nor eaten raw shellfish during the preceding month. She had attended a party two days before her hospitalization. Two other people at the party had acute diarrheal illness and elevated levels of serum antibodies against Vibrio. Everyone at the party ate crabs and rice pudding in coconut milk. Crabs left over from this party were served at a second party. One of the 20 people at the second party had onset of mild diarrhea. Specimens from 14 of these people were negative for virbiocidal antibodies. The source of the disease was
The LD50 is present in the dilution where # animals died and # animals survived is ______. = "lethal dose" of 50% of test group
Which of the following is not a portal of entry for pathogens? Mucous membranes of the respiratory tract Mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract Skin Blood Parenteral route
An encapsulated bacterium can be virulent because the capsule
Which of the following statements is true? The primary goal of a pathogen is to kill the host. Evolution selects for the most virulent pathogens. A successful pathogen doesn't kill its host before it is transmitted. A successful pathogen never kills its host.
A successful pathogen doesn't kill its host before it is transmitted.
The most selective antimicrobial activity would be exhibited by a drug that Inhibits cell wall synthesis Inhibits protein synthesis Injures the plasma membrane Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis All of the above
inhibits cell wall synthesis
Antibiotics that inhibit translation have side effects at....
At the 70S ribosomes in eukaryotic cells
Which of the following will not affect eukaryotic cells? Inhibition of the mitotic spindle Binding with sterols Binding to 80S ribosomes Binding to DNA None of the above
None of the above
Cell membrane damage causes death because
Cell contents leak out
What synthesizes a complimentary strand of DNA (cDNA)? What starts a fragment of a lagging strand using a primer?
DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase
Comlimentary DNA strands (cDNA) have no ___ base and the base pairs are
No uracil A-T, C-G
inserting a base pair to a DNA sequence creates what type of mutation?
A mutagen that replaces a normal base is a
A mutagen that causes the formation of pyrimidine dimers
A test that states a mutated cell can return to a normal cell by means of another mutation
Ames Test (for cancer)
How does UV radiation affect a strand?
adjacent T polymerize (TTT)
What technique combines DNA through conjugation, transduction and transformation? What technique synthesizes artificial DNA?
An enzyme with the recognition sequence with cutting sites resembling G↓GATCCGCTAG↑G contain what?
Fragments of DNA produced with the same _______ enzymes will spontaneously anneal to each other at their _______
restriction enzymes, sticky ends
Name 2 uses for recombination DNA
gene for pest resistance inserted into plants Human growth hormone treats stunted growth
three domains: In this system, plants, animals, fungi, and protists belong to the ____ Domain. Bacteria with peptidoglycan form the second domain, and ______ Domain includes prokaryotes that do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. Eukarya, Archaea
Organisms are grouped into ____ according to phylogenetic relationships, meaning that they come from a common ancesto
____ is the science of classifying organisms to show relationships and ____ is the evolutionary history of a group of organism
Rules for naming fungi and algae are published the International Code for ________ Nomenclature Rules for naming protozoa are published the International Code for ________ Nomenclature and
What is Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology
reference of bacterial classification
Multicellular photoautotrophs are in Kingdom: Multicellular ingestive heterotrophs are classified as:
Kingdom Plantae Classified as Anamalia
ELISA and Western blotting are examples of:
Southern blotting, FISH, and DNA chips are examples of __________ techniques
nucleic acid hybridization techniques
What are the 3 kingdoms of multicellular eukaryotic organisms?
Fungi, Plataea, Anamalia
List from general to most specific the classifications of organism
Dear King Philip Can Only Find Green Socks
A ___ species is a closely related group of organisms that interbreeds specifically. A ___ species is a population of cells with similar characteristics. A ___ species is a population of similiar viruses that occupies a particular ecological niche
eukaryotic, bacterial, viral
Of the domain bacteria: Gram negative - high or low G-C content - Gram negative bacteria -
Extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles and methanogens are in what domain?
stipe (stem-like), a holdfast (to anchor), and blades (leaf-like) are parts of ----
morphology as crustose (flush on the surface), foliose (leaf-like structure), or fruticose (fingerlike projections) are -----
Lichens (algae + fungus)
have complex cells that may include a pellicle (a coating around the cell membrane), a cystome (opening to bring food into the cell), and an anal pore (for waste elimination).
____reproduction is by fission, budding or schizogony ______ reproduction is by conjugation
A boy experiences sickness on Sept 6th and is hospitalized Sept 7th. On Sept 6th he was scratched by a cat that died Sept 5th. He was given meds for Bubonic and on Sept 17th his fever broke. Identify Incubation, predromal and crisis period: