APES Chapter 9
Terms in this set (47)
What caused a drop in the salmon population in Klamath River?
4 water dams
caused water build up behind dams that rose water temperatures.
Global warming causing a reduce in water level
Who are the major interest groups competing over the Klamath River, and what does each one want?
Farmers: water for crops
How was the conflict over Salmon and water in the Klamath River resolved?
Agreement, removed dams, farmers use plants that need less water, and pup irrigation tactics
How much of the world is water?
How does the amount of water found in oceans compare to the total amount of water on Earth?
less than 3=fresh water
What is the major source of freshwater that is accessible for human use?
Below ground water 22.22%
What characteristic distinguishes an artesian well?
must drill hole into confined aquifer, no pump needed to extract the water
Why do unconfined and confined aquifers recharge at different rates? Which is more likely to be contaminated?
unconfined: quickly, more likely contaminated
confined: slowly, less likely to be contaminated
What causes saltwater intrusion in to coastal aquifers?
excessive drilling by coastal regions with low amount of wells. This causes a release of pressure around well causing contamination of salt water into well
what processes form lakes?
glaciation: over thousands of years glaciers scrape large depressions that fill with water (great lakes)
tectonic activity: Rising, isolates area of ocean (more salty) Caspian, or divergent makes fissures fills with water
What role does atmospheric water play in supporting humanity?
Essential to global water distribution, arid regions depend on precipitation and snow to supply their water needs.
How can human activities contribute to droughts?
too many wheat fields
more susceptible to erosion
no plants, nothing holds soil, soil drys out
How can draughts actually wind up creating floods in some cases?
Areas that have droughts do not have systems strong enough to sustain a flood when they come, causing much more devastating floods.
Why do humans construct levees?
They are constructed to prevent flooding, it is enlarged bank built up on each side of a river.
Levees how would their use vary between agricultural and industrial regions?
Commercial: people an businesses
What are the drawbacks of building levees?
fertility of soil reduced (no sediments)
sediments stay in river and settle where river enters ocean
people settling in floodplains
How are dikes different from levees?
Levees: built on both sides of river
Dikes: built to prevent ocean waters from flooding adjacent land common in areas below sea level, Europe (Netherlands)
What are the primary purposes for building dams?
control the flow of water
generation of electricity
What are the benefits? of dams
Benefits: large amounts of hydro electric power (reduces fossil extraction)
prevent seasonal flooding
Negatives of damns
lots of energy,money, and material
possibility of relocation
rivers natural path disruption
released water kills millions of fish
using dams to prevent flooding messed with ecology
How does the City of Los Angeles get its daily water?
colorado river aqueduct
Why are conflicts over water ownership/use intensified by dams and aqueducts?
different countries diversions mesa with each others causing conflict
What are the 2 most common technologies used for desalination, and how does each work?
distillation, and reverse osmossi
Water is boiled, and the resulting steam is condensed to yield pure water. When it becomes steam, salt is left behind. A lot of energy needed
Water is forced through a thin semipermeable membrane at high pressure that salt can not travel through. Brine remains and is harmful to environment.
Break up the percentage usage for water
How is water use connected to the amount of meat that people in a given country consume?
Raising livestock to create meat takes a lot of water.
ex: Producing 1 kg of beef in the United states requires 11 times more water than producing 1 kg of wheat
Why does agriculture represent the greatest opportunity for water conservation improvements?
This is because agriculture is the greatest consumer of fresh water throughout the world.
how much has the use of water around the world changed?
It has more than doubled
What are the four major irrigation techniques and why are some better than others?
Furrow irrigation, Spray, Flood, Drip,
Efficient where it is reducing water consumption and the amount of energy needed to deliver water. Different efficiencies=different circumstances
This is an alternative to traditional irrigation, and is the cultivation of crop plants under greenhouse conditions with their roots put in nutrient rich solutions, without soil.
benefits of hydroponic agriculture?
uses less water because water not taken up by plants can be reused 95% less water
produce more crops per hectare
grow under idea conditions
during every season
little or no pesticides
Negatives of hydroponic agriculture:
costs more money
Easy, inexpensive (oldest technique). Farmers dig rows and fill with water, 65% water goes to plants 35% evaporates or runs off (65%).
Uses more energy, costs more money, water pumped from a well into apparatus and contains a series of spray nozzles that spray water across the field like sprinklers.(75-95%)
More disruptive to plant growth, Flooding a field with water and letting the water soak in evenly. (70-80%)
Most efficient, reduces weed growth, better in perennial crops that don't need plowing, slowly dripping hose that is laid on ground or buried beneath soil. (over 95%)
What are the major industrial uses for water?
Generating electricity, cooling machinery, and refining metals and paper
How does the US use the most water?
1/2 of it goes towards generating electriccty
What 3 household activities have the biggest impact on water consumption in the US?
41% flushing toilets, 33% bathing, 21 % laundry, 5% for cooking and drinking. America uses 595L on average per person.
What prevents access to clean water in many poor countries, and what effects does it have on the populations of those countries?
lack of modern sanitation system for water, lack of strong environmental laws, and lack of tech to remove harmful contaminants and water bourne pathogens.
lack of money
Why is it harder to determine ownership of water than for many other resources?
For each area of water multiple groups can claim it. Having the right is not like owning it. Promised amounts of water fluctuate
How can we resolve these conflicts?
treating water like it is public property that corporations can buy and sell the water. This can promote efficient use of water. Government oversight can make sure things stay in check.
What types of adaptations have wealthier, developed countries made to conserve water?
toilets flushes and water faucets heads to use less water
none water intrusive vegetation arounds pools
How do recent trends in global water consumption compare with recent trends in US water consumption? Given these trends, what do you think will happen to global water use in the near future?
World and America uses more water
america levels off cause of tech
world will level off cause of tech
What is "gray water" and why is it ideally suited for toilets? What other purposes could it serve?
water that has been used but is relatively clean.
water used in sinks, baths, washing machines
can be used for toilets, washing cars, or mowing lawns
How does this story of toilet design illustrate the larger themes that must be embraced if humanity is to achieve sustainable use of water as the global population grows and develops economically?
they need to begin to think about ways to reserve our resources, by figuring out what we are wasting, looking around the world for ideas, and constructing a way to limit our usage.