ATI TEAS EXAM----------LIFE SCIENCE
Terms in this set (87)
The eight levels of taxonomy hierarchy (biological classification system):
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
What does the domain level consist of?
Archea, Eukarya, and Eubacteria.
***Eukarya consists of: animailia, fungi, plantae, and protista.
*** Archea consists of: archeabacteria.
***Eubacteria consists of: eubacteria.
Used when classifying individual species, the Latin name of the genus and species is written in Italiacs with the genus name capitalized and the species not capitalized.
Occurs when some individuals of a species are better able to survive in their environment and reproduce than others; also known as "survival of the fittest".
Stretches of DNA on a chromosome that provide information for an organism's characteristics; are responsible for heredity.
Different forms of genes in which some contain one or more mutations.
Changes in the DNA that affect the way a gene functions.
A process through which mutations and combinations of alleles, some individuals of a species are better able to survive and adapt to the environment in which they live.
***Although adaptation is the end result, the process of natural selection produces it.
Two strains of yeast are placed in a hot environment. Strain A has a mutation in a gene that results in an ability to tolerate and grow at the high temperature. Strain B does not have a mutation in the same gene and is unable to survive as well in the hot environment. The yeast strains are allowed to grow and reproduce for a time. After a number of generations, a sample is tested and only strain A is found. This is an example of what?
The action of natural selection is due to the presence of mutations in the DNA that are passed on from generation to generation. (True or False)
What is the function of nucleic acids?
To store and transmit hereditary information.
What is a nucleic acid?
A chain of nucleotides that consists of a pentose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
A type of sugar. In nucleic acids it is either ribose or deoxyribose.
A molecule in the backbone of DNA and RNA that links adjoining bases together.
A molecule found in DNA and RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells.
5 types: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil.
***Thymine is unique to DNA and Uracil is unique to RNA.
The double helix:
The double helix is able to form because weak bonds are able to form between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen or nitrogen atoms between bases in the complementary strands of DNA. This weak bond is called a hydrogen bond because one partner in the bond will always be a hydrogen atom.
***In DNA adenine (A) always pairs with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs with cytosine (C).
In the DNA's double helix, adenine and guanine have two rings which are known as "purines".
In the DNA's double helix, thymine and cytosine have only one ring so are classified as "pyrimidines".
***In RNA, the pyrimidine base Uracil is used instead of thymine.
Exists as a single strand of nucleotides. The difference between RNA and DNA other than their structural differences is in RNA's pentose component where DNA (deoxyribose) has one less oxygen atom than RNA.
Since DNA is the genetic blueprint of the cell, RNA is the messenger within the cell. It uses the bases in DNA to transfer to the ribosomes to make proteins.
Cells copy the instructions in the DNA into RNA and send the messenger RNA to the ribosomes.
(Protein production) Proteins are made by the ribosomes from the information and send out to the entire cell.
RNA is the messenger between DNA and protein production. (T or F)
Indicate whether the following bases are found in DNA only, RNA only, or both DNA and RNA.
Bacteria (both Eubacteria and Archaebacteria) have the most basic types of cells that can exist independently of each other.
Organelles: cell wall, cytoplasm, organelles, nucleoid, plasmid, ribosomes, and flagella or pili.
Cell wall (Prokaryotic):
An outside, rigid layer that separates the inside and outside of the cell and an inside plasma membrane that is semipermeable that allows certain substances inside and out of the cell.
An inner layer that is a rich protein fluid with gel-like consistency that houses organelles.
The condensed DNA of the cell; contains genes and genetic blueprints needed for the formation of proteins that make up the machinery for the cell.
Small, circular portions of DNA that are not associated with the nucleoid. They contain a small number of genes compared to the DNA in the nucleoid. Chemically similar to DNA.
Manufacture protein for the cell from the RNA messages. Small bodies that are free-floating in the cytoplasm.
Long and whip-like used for the movement of the cell. Bacteria also have "pili" which are used for movement as well as the transfer of genetic information.
Eukarya contain eukaryotic cells which are more complex and much larger than prokaryotic cells.
Plasma membrane (Eukaryotic):
Envelopes the cell and is semipermeable allowing certain substances in and out of the cell. The cytoplasm contains organelles and is gel-like.
Function like ribosomes of prokaryotic cells, are used to make proteins based on RNA messages.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Eukaryotic):
A tubular transport network within the cell, a stack of flattened membraneous sacs. It is responsible for moving proteins from one part of the cell to another and for moving proteins to the outside of the cell (secretion). Two types: smooth and rough.
***Rough ER: studded with ribosomes causing a rough appearance.
***Smooth ER: important for numerous metabolic processes.
Golgi apparatus (Eukaryotic):
Involved in the packing and transport of proteins in the cell, including protein secretion. It refines proteins that have been manufactured by the ribosomes, it sorts the proteins and prepares them for transport to other parts of the cell or for secretion. Works hand in hand with the ER.
Small membrane-bound sacs within the cytoplasm. Used to transport proteins or other substances in or out of the cell. Three common types: vacuoles, lysosomes, and peroxisomes.
***Vacuoles: basic storage unit of the cell and can hold various compounds.
***Lysosomes: contain digestive enzymes that are capable of disposing of cellular debris and worn cell parts.
***Peroxisomes: rid the body of toxic components, such as hydrogen peroxide, major sites of oxygen use and energy production. (Liver contains many peroxisomes because of the toxic buildup).
The powerhouse of the cell, site of where ATP is produced. Large kidney-bean shaped organelles surrounded by membranes. They also contain membranes inside which are a series of folds called "cristae" where enzymes are found. Enzymes on the cristae help convert sugar into ATP to power the cell.
Cellular tracks, that during mitosis, form the mitosis spindle. The spindle helps to segregate the chromosomes during cell division.
***Centrosomes: microtubules-organizing centers that help to form and organize the mitotic spindle during mitosis.
A large organelle in the center of the cell enclosed by a double membrane with pores in it. It is the control center of the cell because it contains the genetic information and directs all activities of the cell.
A small body within the nucleus and functions to produce ribosomes that get moved to the cytoplasm.
Chloroplasts (Plant cells):
Large organelles that contain chlorophyll, which allows the capture of sunlight to be used for production of glucose during photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria but pant cells need both chloroplasts and mitochondria to function.
***Have a solid cell wall to maintain structure.
***Have larger vacuoles to maintain cell pressure.
The nucleus is the site of ATP production in cells (T or F).
A scientist wants to construct a synthetic cell and wants to make sure it has the proper organelles for protein production, transport, and secretion. Given this situation, identify whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Chloroplasts are needed.
2. A Golgi apparatus is needed.
3. Ribosomes are needed.
Which of the following is present in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
A) Golgi apparatus
B) Endoplasmic reticulum
In prokaryotic cells, the DNA is located in the ________, and in eukaryotic cells the DNA is located in the _______.
Contain sections called genes that contain information that specifies the production of proteins. Genes send messages within the cell and to other cells in the form of a code, which is made possible through complementary base pairing.
At the ribosome, the RNA code is translated into an amino-acid chain. A chain of amino acids is a protein.
_________ are large structures of DNA that contain the _______, the blueprints for making an individual.
The central dogma of biology states that _______ gives rise to RNA, which gives rise to a protein.
Differentiation determines what cel type each cell will become. It produces a more-specialized cell from a less-specialized cell. It can occur in a developing embryo or in an adult.
***Cells can divide in adults and remain undifferentiated, this produces stem cells.
3 types of stem cells: totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent.
Early stages of development:
To form an EMBYRO (an animal or plant in the early stages of development after fertilization), a fertilized egg called a ZYGOTE begins dividing and becomes a mass of cells. The most critical stage of development is called GASTRULATION in which individual tissue layers begin to form.
What is an embryo?
An animal or plant in the early stages of development after fertilization.
Cellular differentiation may occur in a developing embryo or in an adult (T or F).
The process of cell duplication in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell.
S phase (Interphase):
S stands for synthesis. Prior to mitosis, the cell must make an exact copy of all of its DNA to have complete new DNA for both new cells.
***S phase: The DNA double helix unwinds with the help of enzymes, breaking the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs and separates the bases from their complementary partners, but does not remove the bases from their backbone of their half of the double helix. The exposed bases pair with new complementary bases that are synthesized into a new complementary strand with the help of the enzyme DNA polymerase. At the same time the other strand from the original double helix is going through the same process. The end result is each of the two strands has one strand from the original parental double helix and one newly synthesized strand.
G1 and G2 (Interphase):
G stands for gap. Before and after synthesis there are gap periods where the cell's DNA is available for transcription into RNA.
***G1: The double helix unwinds to expose the bases, RNA bases pair with their complementary strands, once an entire gene is copied into the complementary messenger RNA the mRNA exits and the double helix closes as the mRNA takes the information to the ribosomes.
***G2: Includes continued protein synthesis and cell growth in preparation for cell division.
There are three steps of the cell cycle during interphase (T or F).
Briefly explain how the DNA double helix can be released to allow replication.
Enzymes initiate the process of unwinding DNA to release two complementary strands of that DNA so DNA polymerase enzymes can duplicate them.
Cells that contain two sets of chromosomes.
Cells that contain only one set of chromosomes.
***In mammals, only gametes are haploid cells.
In a diploid cell, each individual chromosome has a twin chromosome called a homologous chromosome, it is almost identical in size, function, and genes.
Prophase: Spindle fibers form and centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell. Nuclear membrane disappears.
Metaphase: Chromosomes align midway along the spindle fibers.
Anaphase: Chromosomes begin to separate from their daughters. Cytokinesis begins.
Telophase: Identical sets of chromosomes are at opposite ends of the cell. Spindle fibers disappear, n unclear membranes reappear, and cytokinesis completes.
Prophase I: Homologous chromosomes condense and link in the process-forming tetras. Allows crossing over or recombination to occur.
Metaphase I: Homologous chromosomes move to metaphase plate.
Anaphase I: Homologous chromosomes separate, but the sister chromatids stay together.
Telophase I: Cytokinesis has occurred and two haploid daughter cells are the result.
Prophase II: A brief stage in which spindle fibers begin to reappear and centrioles move to opposite poles.
Metaphase II: Sister chromatids align at a new metaphase plate.
Anaphase II: Sister chromatids separate again.
Telophase II: Four haploid cells result after cytokinesis.
During meiosis, a _______ cell will give rise to four _______ cells.
Meiosis and mitosis occur in all types of cells (T or F).
Process carried out by plants in which the energy from sunlight is trapped by the green pigment chlorophyll and used for the synthesis of glucose.
***In the chloroplast, carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun are used to produce ATP a cellular fuel that provides the energy to produce glucose from CO2 and H2O liberating O2 in the process.
***An organisms that can produce its own food is called an autotroph.
(In contrast to photosynthesis, the end product glucose, is used for ATP production. Cellular respiration is used b heterotrophs.)
Glucose is broken down by glycolysis which transfers some energy in glucose to ATP. The end products of glycolysis are fed into the citric acid cycle to produce even more ATP. Together, the citric acid cycle and glycolysis constitute cellular respiration. Cells use mitochondria to carry out this cycle. During these cycles oxygen is used up while carbon dioxide and water are formed as by-products.
***Carbon dioxide is expelled by heterotrophs and used up by autotrophs during photosynthesis.
***The chemical equation for cellular respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis.
The organelle in pants that lows photosynthesis to occur is the _____, which contains the chemical _______ to trap energy from the sun.
A new type of algae has been discovered. To determine whether or not this algae is an autotroph, the scientists should observe for which of the following?
Located in the nucleus of a cell and contain stretches of DNA called genes.
Genes contain coded information that controls the heredity of particular traits (eye color).
Each piece of the code is called a CODON and is composed of three bases. Each one matching a specific amino acid, amino acids make proteins which are responsible for the expression of genetic traits.
***There are 64 codons, because 64 different 3-letter combinations can be formed from A, T, C, and G.
Chromosomes contain stretches of DNA called _____, which contain the information that controls particular traits for an individual.
Genetic traits are expressed through the action of proteins. (T or F).
A complete set of DNA for an individual that contains all genes.
Two mechanisms in which mutations occur:
1. Errors during DNA replication.
2. Via mutagen, which is a substance that induces mutations.
Errors in the human genome:
Errors occur in 1 out of every 1,000 genes during replication, or up to 5% in the human genome. DNA repair mechanisms reduce this rate to less than 0.3%.
***DNA polymerase: proof reads newly synthesized strands of DNA, recognizes mispaired bases, and attempts to correct it.
***Mismatch repair: After replication, this mechanisms reads over the newly synthesized strand to find any mismatches, it removes the incorrect base and replaces it with a correct one.
Mechanism that inspects the DNA for damage caused by mutagens and attempt to repair it after the mutations have gone unseen by DNA polymerase and Mismatch repair. It will cut out the defective strand of DNA and replace it with a new one, skin diseases can be a result of excision repair malfunctioning.
Mutations passed on:
Mutations in the DNA will be passed on to further generations if the defective DNA exists in germ cells (reproductive cells that give rise to ovum and sperm).
DNA in gametes is the DNA passed on to future generations. (T or F).
The physical set of expressions of genetic traits.
An organism's underlying genetic makeup or code.
_______ are the entire set of genes in organisms, while ______ are the characteristics and traits that are expressed by those genes.
When both parents give the offspring the same allele.
When each parent gives the offspring a different allele for a particular trait.
Law of Dominance:
States that if two parents are pure for contrasting traits, only one form of the trait will appear in the offspring.
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