Foods and nutrition chapter 25

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Terms in this set (...)

Why is it important to use a cutting board when cutting food?
It is essential for safe and efficient cutting and it protects the countertop and the cook.
What three terms refer to the same basic process of mixing?
Mix combine blend
What is the correct method for measuring liquid?
1) set the cup on a level surface 2) pour the liquid into the measuring cup 3) bend down to check the measurement at eye level 4) add more or pour of excess 5) pour into the mixing container, use rubber scraper if needed
What is the correct method for measuring dry food?
1) place a piece of wax paper under the proper size measuring cup to catch any extra ingredient. If you need 3/4 cup, use the 1/2 cup and 1/4 cup measures. For 2/3 cup, measure 1/3 cup twice. 2) fill the cup with the ingredient 3) level off the top of the cup, using the straight edge of a spatula. Let the excess fall on the wax paper and return it to its original container. 4) Pour the ingredient into the mixture, using a rubber scraper if needed
How would you mix ingredients when making a salad?
Toss
What are some of the tools needed to measure ingredients accurately?
dry and liquid measuring cups measuring spoons
Why is it necessary to check a liquid measurement at eye level?
A cup in the hand can be tilted, resulting in an incorrect reading , or jostles, resulting in a spill
Why shouldn't you pack or shake down flour after spooning it into a measuring cup?
Probably get too much if you shake the cup or pack the ingredient down
Explain how you would measure a heaping teaspoon of herbs and a pinch of salt.
Healing teaspoon of herbs - leave the ingredient piled in the spoon, should equal almost twice the amount you would get if you leveled off
Pinch of salt - smaller quantity, measured as the amount that can be held between the thumb and finger
Describe three ways to measure solid fats, such as shortening or butter.
stick method (butter/margarine) - 1/4 pound sticks, wrapper marked in tablespoons and in fractions of a cup, cut through the paper with a serrated knife; dry measure method - pack fat into dry measuring cup, pressing firmly to eliminate pockets of space and remove air bubbles, level off the top, use a rubber scrapper; water -displacement method - subtract the amount of fat you want to measure from one cup, pour that resulting amount of water into the measuring cup, and fat until the water reaches the 1 - cup mark, hold fat down under water, lift fat from water with a slotted food
Why is it more accurate to measure some foods by weight rather than by volume?
weight is a more exact measurement than volume, they may be in packages measured by weight
What are two essential tools for safe cutting?
a sharpened knife and a cutting board
What two techniques for changing the size and shape of food result in a smooth mixture?
purée and mash
What are four things that coating accomplishes?
Coating adds flavor and texture, helps food brown better, and retain moisture
How is brown sugar measured?
it contains moisture, tends to be fluffy, pack down into cup with back of sppon, it should hold its shape, measure as a dry ingredient
How is yogurt measured?
can be spooned or scraped out into and out of the cup, used as dry ingredient measuring instructions
How is flour measured?
sift it to remove small lumps or add air; spoon it lightly into measuring cups, use dry ingredient measuring instructions
How is milk measured?
use liquid measuring instructions
How is a stick of butter measured?
use the stick method for measuring solid fats
putting a thin layer of another food on food
coating
dividing a food into smaller parts, using a tool with a sharp blade
cutting
combining two or more ingredients thoroughly so they blend
mixing
subtracting the weight of the container to find the weight of the food alone
taring
to cut food into small, irregular pieces
chop
to chop finely
mince
to cut food into 1/2 inch square pieces
cube
to cut food into 1-8 to 1-4 inch square pieces
dice
to cut off a very thin layer of peel with a paring knife
pare
to make straight, shallow cuts with a slicing knife in the surface of a food
score
to cut food into large, thin pieces
slice
to cut food into very thin pieces
sliver
to pulverize food into crumbs, powder, or paste with a rolling pin
crush
to break or tear foods, such as fish, into small layers
flake
to cut food into smaller pieces or shreds by rubbing the food against the rough surface of a grater
grate
pull it apart with a fork; pressing the food against the rough surface of a grater
shred
to break up foods such as meat or coffee beans into coarse, medium, or fine particles
grind
to crush food into a smooth mixture
mash
to use a blender to grind or mash cooked fruits or vegetables
puree
to divide food into four equal pieces
quarter
to cut food into small pieces with kitchen shears
snip
thoroughly mix and add air to food
beat
beat ingredients together, such as butter and sugar, until soft and creamy
cream
gently mix a light, fluffy mix into a heavier one
fold
mix with a spoon or wire whisk in a circular motion to distribute heat and keep foods from sticking
stir
mix ingredients, such as salads, by tumbling them with tongs
toss
beat quickly and vigorously to incorporate air into a mixture, making it light and fluffy
whip
pour liquid over a food as it cooks
baste
coat a food with flour, milk or beaten egg, and seasoned crumbs or cornmeal
bread
use a pastry brush to coat a food with liquid, such as butter
brush
to put small pieces of food, such as butter, on the surface of another food
dot
to coat a food heavily with flour, bread crumbs, or cornmeal
dredge
lightly sprinkle a food with flour or confectioner's sugar
dust
to coat a food, such as chicken or fish with flour
flour
to coat a food with a liquid that forms a glossy finish
glaze
to dip a food briefly in boiling water and then in cold water to stop the cooking process; one step in canning and freezing fruits and veggies. these kind of peppers and almonds are more easily peeled for roasting
blanch
to cook a food in a sugar syrup, some root vegies, fruits, and fruit peels are prepared this way
candy
to heat sugar until it liquefies and darkens in color; other foods may be this to release their sugar content
carmelize
to make a liquid clear by removing solid particles. A broth is this and the butter fat poured off from the milk solids
clarify
to remove the center of a fruit such as an apple or pineapple
core
to loosen the flavorful food particles in a pan after food has been browned the food is removed from the pan and excess fat poured off a small amount of liquid is added, stirred, and simmered, resulting sauces served with food
deglaze
to separate water from solid food, such as veggies or cooked pasta, by putting the food in a colander or strainer
drain
to add flavor to a food by soaking it in a cold, seasoned liquid the liquid is usually discarded
marinate
to shape a food by hand or by placing it in a decorative mold
mold
to remove a stone or seed from fruit using a sharp knife
pit
to boil a mixture in order to evaporate the liquid and intensify the flavor also called cooking down
reduce
to heat liquid to jest below the boiling point also to blanch food
scald
to add such flavorings as herbs and spices to a food
season
to remove the tough outer coating of a food, such as eggs or nuts
shell
to soak dry ingredients, such as tea or herbs in hot liquid to extract flavor or soften the texture, mixture strained, particles discarded
steep
to separate solid particles from a liquid, such as broth, by pouring the mixture through a strainer or sieve
strain
to leave an opening in a container so steam can escape during cooking
vent