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112 terms

A&P II practical: muscle actions, insertions, origins

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pectoralis minor insertion
coracoid process of scapula
deltoid origin
clavicle and scapula
deltoid insertion
deltoid tuberosity
biceps brachii insertion
radial tuberosity
brachialis insertion
coronoid process of ulna
brachioradialis insertion
styloid process of radius
pronator teres origin
common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle of humerus
flexor carpi radialis origin
common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle of humerus
palmaris longus origin
common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle
flexor carpi ulnaris origin
common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle of humerus
triceps brachii insertion
olecranon process of ulna
extensor carpi radialis longus origin
common extensor tendon of lateral epicondyle of humerus
extensor carpi radialis brevis origin
common extensor tendon of lateral epicondyle
extensor digitorum origin
common extensor tendon of lateral epicondyle
extensor carpi ulnaris origin
common extensor tendon of lateral epicondyle
quadriceps femoris insertion
tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
extensor digitorum longus insertion
middle and distal phalanges of four lesser toes (2-5)
extensor hallucis longus insertion
base of distal phalanx of great toe
gastrocnemius insertion
calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
soleus insertion
calcaneus
flexor digitorum longus insertion
bases of distal phalanges (2-5)
flexor hallucis longus insertion
base of distal phalanx of great toe
pectoralis major
flexion, adduction and medial rotation of the arm at the glenohumeral joint
pectoralis minor
draws scapula down and anteriorly against thoracic wall
serratus anterior
draws scapula laterally and forward
external intercostals
elevates ribs and help breathe in
deltoid
abducts arm and flexion and medial rotation of the arm at the glenohumeral joint
subscapularis
medial rotation and adduction of the arm at the glenohumeral joint **rotator cuff muscle
trapezius
elevates scapulae
latissimus dorsi
adducts and medially rotates the humerus of the arm at the glenohumeral joint. "swimmer's back"
levator scapulae
elevates scapulae
rhomboids (group)
retracts scapulae
supraspinatus
abduction of the arm at the glenohumeral joint **rotator cuff muscle
infraspinatus
rotates humerus laterally **rotator cuff muscle
teres minor
rotates humerus laterally **rotator cuff muscle
teres major
medial rotation and extension of the arm at the glenohumeral joint
biceps brachii
supination of the forearm
brachialis
flexion of the forearm at the elbow
brachioradialis
flexion of the forearm at the elbow
pronator teres
pronation of the forearm at the elbow
flexor carpi radialis
flexes the wrist
palmaris longus
flexes the wrist
flexor carpi ulnaris
flexes the wrist
flexor digitorum superficialis
flexes proximal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-4 (only name and action)
flexor digitorium profundus
flexes distal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5 (only name and action)
triceps brachii
extension of the forearm at the elbow
extensor carpi radialis longus
extends the wrist
extensor carpi radialis brevis
extends the wrist
extensor digitorum
extends digits 2-4
extensor carpi ulnaris
extends the wrist
rectus abdominis
compress abdominal contents, flex vertebral column
external abdominal oblique
compress abdominal contents, flex vertebral column
internal abdominal oblique
compress abdominal contents, flex vertebral column
transversus abdominis
compress abdominal contents
gluteus maximus
extension of the femur at the hip
gluteus medius
abducts femur at the hip
gluteus minimus
abducts femur at the hip
four parts of quadriceps femoris
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
rectus femoris
flexes the thigh at the hip
vastus lateralis
extends the leg at the knee
vastus medialis
extends the leg at the knee
vastus intermedius
extends the leg at the knee
three components of buttocks
gluteus maximus, medius, minimus
sartorius
flexes the thigh at the hip, flexes the leg at the knee
adductor longus
adducts and medially rotates the thigh at the hip
gracilis
adducts thigh at the hip, flexes leg at knee
three parts of hamstrings
biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
biceps femoris
flexes leg at the knee
semitendinosus
flexes leg at the knee
semimembranosus
flexes leg at the knee
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle
extensor digitorum longus
extension of toes 2-5 and dorsiflexion of the foot
extensor hallucis longus
extension of the great toe and dorsiflexion of the foot
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot and flexes knee
soleus
plantar flexes the foot
flexor digitorum longus
flexes toes 2-5
flexor hallucis longus
flexes the great toe
fibularis (peroneus) longus
eversion and plantar flexion of the foot
fibularis (peroneus) brevis
eversion of the foot
parts of a reflex arc
sensor, sensory (afferent) neurons, synapse with interneurons or CNS integration, motor (efferent) neurons, effector
baroreceptor
pressure receptor
mechanoreceptor
detect mechanical pressure, found in skin, ears
thermoreceptors
detect changes in temperature
nociceptors
detect pain
chemoreceptors
detect changes in pH, found in tongue and nose
photoreceptors
detect light (rods and cones)
stretch receptors
very specialized, 'muscle spindles'
localized receptors
chemoreceptors, photoreceptors, muscle spindles
randomly (uniformly) distributed receptors
thermorecptors, mechanoreceptors, nocireceptors (usually those found in skin)
high density receptors
each receptor has a smaller receptive field (fingers, palms, face)
low density receptors
each receptor has a larger receptive field (back, arms, legs)
specific gravity
water/ion ratio of urine
what should not be in pee?
glucose, blood, proteins, bilirubin, ketone bodies, WBCs
what causes glucose in urine?
diabetes
what causes blood in urine?
renal failure
what causes proteins in urine?
renal failure, high blood pressure, after exercise
what causes bilirubin in urine?
liver failure
what causes ketone bodies in urine?
precursor to diabetes, starvation, low carb diet
what causes WBCs in urine?
UTI-urinary tract infection
normal range of pH in urine
5.0-9.0
normal range of glucose in urine
usually zero
normal range of ketone bodies in urine
usually zero
normal range of bilirubin in urine
usually zero
normal range of Hb in urine
usually zero
normal range of RBCs in urine
usually zero
normal range of WBCs in urine
usually zero
normal range of protein in urine
usually zero
normal range of Specific gravity in urine
1.001-1.035
normal range of nitrates in urine
usually zero
normal range of urobilinogen in urine
0.2-1.0 mg/d
low specific gravity
1.001 pure H2O, very dilute
high specific gravity
urine is concentrated, usually dehydrated, not much H2O