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Psych chapter 7, second semester

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Thinking (cognition)
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.
Mental Images
Mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality
Concepts
ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities. Like "birds" we can think about the concept of "birds" without dealing with each and every specific bird.
Superordinate concept
the most general form of a type of concept, such as "animal" or "fruit"
basic level type
an example of a type of concept around with other similar objects are organized, such as "dog" "cat" or "pear"
subordinate concept
the most specific category of a concept, such as one's pet dog, or a pear in one's hand
formal concepts
concepts that are defined by specific rules or features
natural concepts
concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world
problem solving
process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways
trial and error (mechanical solution)
problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found
algorithms
a very specific, step-by-step procedure for solving a certain type of problem
heuristic
an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as "rule of thumb"
means-end analysis
heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce the difference
functional fixedness
a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions
mental set
the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past
comfirmation bias
the tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs
creativity
the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways
convergent thinking
type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic
divergent thinking
type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point
intelligence
the ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
g factor
the ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence
s factor
the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
analytical intelligence
the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving
creative intelligence
the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems
practical intelligence
the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful
reliability
the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people
validity
the degree to which a test actually measures what it's supposed to mesure
deviation IQ scores
a type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15
Standardization
process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed
norms
scores from the standardization group, the standards against which all others who take the test would be compared
Standard deviation
the average variation of scores from the mean
WAIS-IV
Wechlser adult intelligence scale
WISC-IV
Wechsler intelligence scale for children
WPPSI-III
Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence
developmentally delayed
condition in which a person's behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age. A more acceptable term for mental retardation
Adaptive behavior
skills that allow people to live independently
gifted
the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above
emotional intelligence
the awareness of and ability to manage one's own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel, and socially skilled
language
a system for combining symbols so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others
grammar
the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language
syntax
the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences
morphemes
the smallest unites of meaning within a language
semantics
the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences
phonemes
the basic unites of sound in language
intonation
knowing just what rhythm and emphasis to use when communicating with others
pragmatics
aspects of language involving the practial ways of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language
Cognitive reserve
the ability of the brain to build and maintain new neurons and the connections between them