Social Studies - Immigration of US

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"Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

What was the message of this quote?
The United States was a beacon of hope for many immigrants striving for a new life. The message was that our country is willing to accept anyone who wants to come here.
Who were the first successful immigrants and where did they come from?
Native Americans who crossed the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska.
What are the reasons people migrate?
Push and pull factors
What were the main reasons for coming to the United States?
Economic opportunity or religious freedom.
Is slavery considered a form of migration?
Yes, it is forced migration.
Where were most of the immigrants coming from in the 1500s?
Europe
How many waves of immigrants were there?
Three
What type of immigrants were in the first wave?
Germans, which were one of the largest immigrant groups in early America. They had more money than the Irish.
Where did they go?
They went to the Midwest to settle in farms or in cities (Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, etc).
What was another group that was part of the first wave?
Irish. Most were poor so they couldn't travel to the west. They settled in cities like Boston and NYC.
What jobs did they get?
Manual jobs for men and servants for women
Why did the number of Irish immigrants increase?
The Irish Potato Famine in 1845
What act gave away free farmland and spurred settlement in the west?
The Homestead Act in 1862. Had to farm the land you received for 5 years.
Who was it the most appealing to?
European immigrants and people from overcrowded cities
What attracted immigrants in search of work?
The building of the Transcontinental Railroad
What groups of immigrants did most of the labor?
The Irish and Chinese
As more Irish came into the country, what sentiment grew?
Anti-Catholic sentiment, in which people believed that Catholics would be loyal to the Pope and not to our country.
What Anti-Irish group developed into a major political party?
The Know-Nothings
Why did the urban population in the US grow from 6 million to 44 million between 1860 and 1910?
The growth of industry
What helped spark another wave of immigration in the late 1800s?
The invention of ocean-going steamships
What year were steamboats created and why were they increasing immigration?
1880; they were fast and affordable
What group of immigrants was specifically excluded from federal law in 1882?
Chinese
What did the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 do?
It prohibited Chinese immigrants and convicts from other countries from entering the country.
What groups came to the United States during the second wave and where were they mostly from?
Southern and Eastern Europe, such as Italians, Russians, Poles and Jews fleeing religious persecution from Eastern Europe.
Where were millions of immigrants being processed in the New York Harbor?
Ellis Island (opened in 1892)
What was a similar facility in San Francisco for immigrants who had crossed the Pacific?
Angel Island (opened in 1910)
What jobs did these immigrants take?
New immigrants from the second wave took jobs, such as laying gas lines, paving streets, building bridges and skyscrapers, and digging subway tunnels. They also worked in factories, where they made clothes, shoes, and glass products. There were mining industries in the West, and steel manufacturing in the Midwest, as well as sugar cane plantations.
What icon is a mark of immigration?
The Statue of Liberty
Where did most newly arrived immigrants move to?
They typically lived in crowded cities, often in tiny apartments called tenements.
What were the new improvements of the tenement buildings?
Gas light, running water, a flushing toilet in the hallway.
What gave the immigrants these improvements?
The Tenement House Act, which improved the health and life span of immigrants living in tenements
What were the conditions of the factories where the immigrants worked?
The factories were overcrowded and dangerous.
What were some of the suspicions of Americans pertaining to immigrants starting in the 1920s and 1930s?
The Americans were worried that the immigrants were not going to be loyal to our country and that they would take good jobs away. This led to racism, anti-semitism, and xenophobia, which is fear and hatred of immigrants.
What was the purpose of the Emergency Quota Act of 1921?
It set restrictions on immigration. From 1920 to 1921, the number of immigrants was reduced from 800,000 to 30,000.
What also restricted immigration?
The Immigration Act of 1924 (or the National Origins Act) was created, which passed strict quotas (limits) and restrictions on immigration from many countries.
What were two reasons why immigration dropped in the 1930s?
1) The Great Depression occurred in the 1930s. Few immigrants came to the United States during this time, while many even left the country to go back to their home country.
2) It was more difficult to get into the country.
What immigrants were given preferred status during the third wave?
The third wave occurred during the Cold War, so preferred status was given to people who were escaping Soviet domination.
Where did they come from?
Thousands of immigrants came from "Captive Nations," such as Hungary and Cuba.
What was signed by Eisenhower and caused the deportation of 1 million illegal immigrants?
Operation Wetback of 1954
Where were most of the immigrants coming from during this time?
Most immigrants came from East Asia and Latin America because fewer Europeans needed to emigrate.
What act shifted the priorities of the types of immigrants that were allowed into the country?
The Hart Cellar Act of 1965 allowed people to come to the US if their family members would sponsor them. Foreigners were also allowed to come if they were a highly skilled worker.
Overall, when were major restrictions on immigration put into place (with the exception of Asian immigrants)?
Immigration, especially along the Mexican border, was restricted after 1965.
What did the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 do?
It was signed by Reagan. It gave "green cards" to about 2.7 million illegal immigrants, but sanctions were applied to employers who knowingly hired them.
What did the 1990 Immigration Act do?
It increased the legal limits on immigration.
About how many illegal immigrants are living and working illegally in the US?
An estimated 11 million immigrants
Where are most of the current immigrants coming from?
Latin America and South and East Asia
What is the percent of people who are foreign-born in the US?
10% of those living in America were born in another country.
WHAT WERE ALL THE ACTS AND THEIR DATES?
1862 - Homestead Act
1882 - Asian Exclusion Act
1921 - The Emergency Quota Act
1924 - Immigration Act of 1924 (National Origins Act)
1954 - Operation Wetback
1965 - The Hart Cellar Act
1986 - Immigration Reform and Control Act
1990 - Immigration Act