How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

405 terms

Medication Review - RN NCLEX

Combination of many other sets
STUDY
PLAY
ACE Inhibitors, - pril suffix, ex Captopril,
Prevent the synthesis of angiotensin II by "inhibiting" angiotensin-converting enzyme, a potent vasoconstrictior; decrease afterload and preload in heart failure; used to treat HTN, CHF;Interacts with: NSAID, Diuretics, sulfameth/trimethoprim, side effects: 1st dose hypotension, hacking cough, loss of taste. Hyperkalemia, renal tubular damage, decreased B/P, dizziness, nausea & diarrhea NRSG: Administer 1 hr before meals to increase absorption, teach patient to sit up,stand up slowly due to orthostatic BP's, teratogenic, Labs:BUN,creatinine,protein,BG, report bruising, petechial rash,
Ascetylcholinesterase Inhibitors -ine suffix-ex rivastigmine, memantine, galantmine, different suffix -Aricept(donepezil)
(AChe inhibitor) an enzyme to break down AChe-Promote the accumulation of actylcholine in neuron receptors, resulting in prolonged cholinergic, improves cognition in Alzheimer's pt's side effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, decreased appetite or weight loss interacts with: anticholinergic drugs (e.g., benztropine, scopolamine), cholinergic drugs (e.g., bethanechol), other cholinesterase inhibitors succinylcholine-type muscle blocking drugs, aspirin, NSAIDS
Alpha Adrenergic blockers -zosin suffix, ex prazosin(Minipress), dozazosin(Cardura)
Decreases peripheral vascular resistance and lowers blood pressure by selectively blocking receptors in the vascular smooth muscle, Used for HTN, side effects: 1st dose Hypotension, dizziness, lightheadedness, faint, interacts with:NSAIDS, clonidine NRSG-teach pt to rise slowly lying to sitting, sitting to standing, take at bedtime
Aldosterone Receptor antagonists
Block stimulation of mineralocorticoid receptors by aldosterone, thus reducing high blood pressure by preventing sodium reabsorption; interacts with: side effects:
Aminoglycosides
Gentamicin, Tobramycin, and related antibiotics; particularly effective against gram-negative microorganisms; noted for potentially dangerous toxicity; interacts with: side effects:
Analgesics, ex's- acetaminophen, aspirin, Morphine sulfate, Demerol, fentanyl
Narcotic and nonnarcotic; relieve pain without producing loss of consciousness or reflex activity; interacts with:ALCOHOL, ASA-coumadin side effects:Acute toxicity to liver(tylenol) or kidneys
Androgens
These steroid hormones produce masculinizing effects; interacts with: side effects:
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists - tan suffix, ex irbesartan, Valsartan
Also known as ARBs (a very potent vasoconstrictor) from binding to receptor sites is vascular smooth mucle, brain, heart, kidneys, and adrenal gland, thus blocking the blood pressure-elevating and sodium-retaining effects of angiotensin II; interacts with: side effects:
Anesthetics
For example, local anesthesia, general anesthesia; cause a loss of sensation with or without a loss of consciousness; interacts with: side effects:
Antacids
Reduce the acidity of the gastric contents; interacts with: side effects:
Antianginals
Used to prevent or treat attacks of angina pectoris; interacts with: side effects:
Antianxiety
Used to prevent anxiety symptoms or disorders; also known as minor tranquilizers or anxiolytics, although the term tranquilizer is avoided today to prevent the misperception that the patient is being tranquilized
Antiarrhythmics
Used to correct cardiac arrhythmias (any heart rate or rhythm other than normal sinus rhythm); interacts with: side effects:
Antibiotics
Used to treat infections caused by pathogenic microbes; the term in often used interchangeably with antimicrobial agents; interacts with: side effects:
Anticholinergic
Block the action of acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system; also known as cholinergic blocking agents, antispasmodics, and parasympatholytic agents; interacts with: side effects:
Anticoagulants-Parenteral -Heparin, enoxaprin (lovanoxn
Do not dissolve existing blood clots, but so prevent enlargement or extension of blood clots; interacts with: side effects:
Anticonvulsants
Suppress abnormal neuronal activity in the CNS, preventing seizures; interacts with: side effects:
Antidepressants
Relieve depression; interacts with: side effects:
Antidiabetics
Also known as hypoglycemics; include insulin (used to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus) and oral hypoglycemic agents (used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus); interacts with: side effects:
Antidiarrheals
Relieve or control the symtoms of acute or chronic diarrhea; interacts with: side effects:
Antiemetics
Used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting; interacts with: side effects:
Antifungals
Used to treat fungal infections; interacts with: side effects:
Antiglaucoma
Used to reduce intraocular pressure; interacts with: side effects:
Antigout
Used in the treatment of active gout attacks or to prevent future attacks; interacts with: side effects:
Antihypertensives
Used to treat elevated blood pressure (hypertension); interacts with: side effects:
Antilipemics-Statins -statin, ex's simvastatin(Zocor), lovastatin(mevacor)
Supresses cholesterol synthesis in the liver. Can increase HDL and decrease LDL, promotes vasodilation, decreases plaque site inflammation, decreases risk of thromboembolism.Uses to reduce serum cholesterol and/or triglycerides in hypercholesterolemia, prevention of coronary events, protect against MI and stroke in clients with Diabetes. interacts with:fibrates-gemfibrozol, fenofibrate-increase myopathy, meds that suppress CYP3A4-erythromyacin(can increase dose of statin when taking concurrently), Grapefruit juice-increases toxicity. side effects:hepatoxicity, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy-numbness, tingling, and pain to hands and feet. NRSG: take with evening meal, renal insuff pt's need decreased dose, msut get baseline liver enzymes, cholesterol levels with periodic lab levels. Cat C
Antimicrobials
Chemicals that eliminate living microorganisms pathogenic to the patient; also called antibiotics or antiinfectives; interacts with: side effects:
Antineoplastics
Also called chemotherapy agents; used alone or in combination with other treatment modalities such as radiation, surgery, or biologic response modifiers for the treatment of cancer; interacts with: side effects:
Antiparkinson's
Used in the treatment of Parkinson syndrome and other dyskinesias; interacts with: side effects:
Antiplatelets
Prevent paltelet clumpling (aggregation), thereby preventing an essential step in formation of a blood clot; interacts with: side effects:
Antipsychotics
Used in the treatment of severe mental illnesses; also known as major tranquilizers or neuroleptics, although the term tranquilizer is avoided today to prevent the misperception that the patient is being tranquilized; interacts with: side effects:
Antipyretics
Used to reduce fevers associated with a variety of conditions; interacts with: side effects:
Antispasmodics
Actually anticholinergic agents; interacts with: side effects:
Antithyroid
Used to treat the symptoms of hyperthyroidism; also known as thyroid hormones antagonists; interacts with: side effects:
Antituberculins
Used to prevent or treat an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Antitussive
Used to suppress a cough by acting on the souch center of the brain
Antiulcer agents
These drugs, such as histamine-2 antagonist, decrease the volume and increase the pH of gastric secretions; interacts with: side effects:
Antivirals
Used to treat infections caused by pathogenic viruses; interacts with: side effects:
Bronchodilators
Stimulate receptors within the tracheobronchial tree to relax and dilate the airway passages, allowing a greater volume of air to be exchanged and improving oxygenation; interacts with: side effects:
Beta andrenergic blockers -lol suffix, metoprolol, atenolol, popranolol
Inhibit the acivity of sympathetic transmitters, norepinephrine, and epinephrine; used to treat angina, arrhythmias, hypertension, and glaucoma; Used for: Angina,HTN,Cardiac dysrrhythmias,MI,CHF,interacts with: Calcium channel blockers,(verapamil, diltiazem) other antihypertensives, Insulin-may need to adjust Insulin doses for DM's, side effects:bradycardia, decreased cardiac output,AV block,ortho hypotension, rebound myocardium excitement,bronchoconstriction, glycogenolysis is inhibited (inhibits the breakdown of glycogen) NRSG: close BG monitoring for Diabetics,Asthmatics should not have this drug!,do not stop drug suddenly,daily HR & BP monitoring,daily weights for CHF pts
Calcium channel blockers -pine suffix ex amlodipine(Norvasc) felodipine(Plendil), also, diltiazem (Cardizem) verapamil (Calan)
Also called calcium ion antagonists, inhibit the entry of calcium ions in heart muscle cells, causing a slowing of the heart rate, lessening the demand for oxygen and nutrients, and relaxing of the smooth muscle cells causing vasodilation; Use: prevent or treat angina pectoris, HTN, only verapamil usually used for cardiac dysrhythmias, Side effects: reflex tachycardia, peripheral edema,acute toxicity,ortho BP's, constipation,bradycardia, CHF, Interacts with:Digoxin - increased levels, grapefruit- toxicity, other beta blockers-CHF, AV block, bradycardia NRSG:do not chew, cut or crush sustained release pills,IV admin slowly over 2-3 min, Angina pts-keep a record of chest pain(freq, intensity,duration, location and notify Dr. with increases), daily monitoring BP,HR & weights
Carbapenems
Antiboitics (imipenen, ertapenem, meropenerm) that have a broad spectrum ot activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; they act by inhibiting cell wall synthesis; interacts with: side effects:
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Interfere with the production of aque humor, thereby reducing intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma; interacts with: side effects:
Cell-stimulating agents
Improve immune function by stimulating the activity of various immune cells; interacts with: side effects:
Cholinergic
Also known as parasympathomimetics; produce effects similar to those of acetylcholine; interacts with: side effects:
Cholinesterase inhibitors
These enzymes destroy acetylcholine, the cholinergic neurotransmitter; interacts with: side effects:
Coating agent
This drug, sucralfate, forms a complex that adheres to the carter of an ulcer, protecting it from aggravation by gastric secretions; interacts with: side effects:
Colony-stimulating factors
Stimulate progenitor cells in bone marrow to increase numbers of leukocytes, thereby improving immune function; interacts with: side effects:
Corticosteroids
These hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex the adrenal gland; interacts with: side effects:
Cycloplegics
Anticholinergic agents that paralyze accommodation of the iris of the eye; interacts ; interacts with: side effects:with: side effects:
Cytotoxics
Agents that cause direct cell death; often used for cancer chemotherapy; interacts with: side effects:
Decongentants
Reduce swelling in the nasal passages caused by common cold or allergic rhinitis; interacts with: side effects:
Digestants
Combination products containing digestive enzymes used to treat various digestive disorders and to supplement deficiencies of natural digestive enzymes; interacts with: side effects:
Digitalis glycosides
A class of drugs, also konwn as cardia glycosides, that increase the force of contraction and slow the heart rate, thereby improving cardiac output; interacts with: side effects:
Diuretics
Act to increase the flow of urine; interacts with: side effects:
Emetics
Used to induce vomiting; interacts with: side effects:
Estrogens
Steroids that cause feminizing effects; interacts with: side effects:
Expectorants
Liquefy mucus by stimulating the natural lubricant fluids from the bronchial glands; interacts with: side effects:
Fluoroquinolones
Ciprofloxacin and related agents; widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics; interacts with: side effects:
Gastric stimulants
Used to increase stomach contractions, relax the pyloric valve, and increase peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract; result in a decrease in gastric transit time and more rapid emptying of the interstinal tract; interacts with: side effects:
Glucocorticoids
Also known as adrenocorticosteroids; are used to regulate carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism
Gonadal hormones
Hormones produced by the testes in the male and ovaries in the female; interacts with: side effects:
Herbals
Plant products usually sold as food supplements; may have pharmacologic effects that are not evaluated or regulated by the FDA; interacts with: side effects:
Histamine (H2) antagonists
Decrease the volume and increase the pH of gastric secretions both during the day and the night; interacts with: side effects:
HMG-CoA reductase enzyme inhibitors
Also known as the statins: antilipemic agents that inhibit hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) thus reduce potential for atherosclesrosis; interacts with: side effects:
Hyperuricemics
Used to decrease the production or increase the excretion of uric acid; interacts with: side effects:
Immunizations
Produces antibodies that provide active immunity, prevents childhood infectious diseases
Immune Globullin-ex's Gamma globulin, Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Route: deep IM
Provides passive immunity and provide antibodies, interacts with: Live virus, side effects:local reaction, systemic allergy,
Immunostimulants-ex's Interferon alfa, Interleukin 2 Route: SQ or IM
enhance immune responses & decrease proliferation of cancer cells; interacts with: Antihypertensives,Theo-dur, Zydovudine(Retrovir) side effects:Cardiotoxicity, Hypotension, flu-like symptoms(fever, headaches,fatigue,chills,myalgias) Bone marrow suppression, alopecia,
immunosuppressants-ex's cyclosporine(Sandimmune, Gengraf,Neoral)
Act on T lymphocytes to suppress production of immune response components, supresses B cells Cytotoxic T's; interacts with: Phentoin, phenobarbitol,rifampin,tegretol, causing decrease in cyclosporine effects; Grapefruit juice,Ketoconizole, erythromycin, Amph B, cyclosporine increased effects, NSAIDs causes nephrotoxicity, glucocorticoids- cause hyperglycemia, side effects:hepatoxicity-jaundice, Nephrotoxicity,Osteporosis,adrenal insufficiency,fluid retention,bone marrow depression
Antihistamines ex's-1st gen H1antagonists-Diphenhydramine, promethazine, dramamine, 2nd gen H1 antagonists-loratadine (claritin) cetirizine(Zyrtec), fexofenadine(allegra)
Antihistamne action is on the H1 receptor results in blocking histamine relase in small blood vessels, nerves during allergic reactions. ; Used to treat allergy symptoms; may also be used to treat motion sickness, insomnia, and other nonallergic reactions; interacts with:ALCOHOL side effects:Sedation, anticholinergic effects(dry mouth, constipation) GI-nausea,vomiting,constipation,acute toxicity(flushed face, high fever, tachycardia) children-excitations,hallucinations,uncoordination,seizures
NSAIDs-Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory ex's-1st gen-COX & COX 2 inhibitors-Aspirin, 2nd gen-selective Cox 2 inhibitors-Celebrex. 1st gen Ibuprofen, naproxen, ketorolac, 2nd gen-valdecoxib(Bextra)
Inhibits cyclooxygenase (inhibits COX 2 reducing inflammation, pain, fever. Inhibits COX 1 reducing platelet aggregation; interacts with: Warfarin increases bleeding times, glucocorticoids-increasing GI bleed risk, ALCOHOL- risk of bleeding, Ibuprofen-decreases platelet effects, Aspirin side effects: GI -dyspepsia, abdom pain, heartburn, nausea, renal dysfuntion- urine output, weight gain, increased BUN and creatinine levels, Salicylism( tinnitus,sweating, Headache, dizziness, repsiratory alkalosis, Reyes syndrome
Alpha 2 Agonist -ine suffix, ex clonidine (Catapress)
Act within the CNS to decrease sympathetic outflow resulting in decreased stimulation to the adrenergic receptors (both alpha & beta) of the heart and peripheral vascular system. Results in vasodilation,bradycardia & decreased cardiac output. Used for: HTN, Severe Cancer pain Side effects:drowsiness, sedation, dry mouth,rebound HTN, Interacts with:ALCOHOL,antihypertensive meds,Prazosin,MAOI's,trycyclic antidepressants,clonidine,CNS depressant, category C, NRSG: hypotension, don't stop taking med suddenly,teach pt to rise slowly lying to sitting, sitting to standing, take at bedtime
Hypertensive Crisis Medications/treatment -no common suffix, labetalol (Trandate), diazoxide(Hyperstat),fenoldopam(Corlopam), trimethaphan(arfonad), IV sodium nitroprusside(Nitropress)
Hypertensive emergencies are severe elevations in BP, often higher than 220/140 mm Hg, complicated by clinical evidence of progressive target organ dysfunction. A potentially life-threatening syndrome that results when an individual taking MAOIs eats a product high in tyramine(Alcohol, aged cheese overripened fruit,processed meats, soy products, caffienated drinks,yeast products, chocolate, OTC cold meds, diet pills). Symptoms:severe occipital headache, palpitations, nausea and vomiting, nuchal rigidity, fever, sweating, marked increase in blood pressure, chest pain, and coma. Meds listed(antihypertensives) cause vasodilation to cause decrease in preload and afterload. Side effects: excessive hypotension, cyanide and Thiocyanate toxicity (the pharmacokinetics of nitroprusside with metabolism to highly toxic cyanide. Simultaneous infusion of thiosulfate with nitroprusside provides the sulfur donor necessary to prevent cyanide accumulation - this is more common problem in peadiatrics) NRSG: IV solutes can be slightly brown discard any solutes dark blue, green, or red. protect Sodium nitroprusside from light, continuous monitoring of BP and EKG! Category C
Organic Nitrates -Nitroglycerin ex's Nitrol, Nitrostat, Isosorbide dinitrate(Imdur)
in stable angina-decreases cardiac 02 demand by dilating veins and decreasing venous return(preload), in variant angina-relaxes or prevents spasm in coronary arteries, increasing 02 supply. Uses:Acute attack & prophylaxsis in stable angina,variant angina, refractive angina,CHf due to acute MI, Side effects: headache,ortho BP's, reflex tachycardia, tolerance, Interacts with: ALCOHOL,anthypertensive meds, Viagr,a NRSG:teach pt use for acute attack & prophylaxsis, may take up to two doses at 5 min intervals or as prescribed.
Cardiac Glycosides - only med is digoxin(Lanoxin,Lanoxicaps,Digitek)
positive inotropic effect=increased force and efficiency of myocardial contraction improving pumping of heart, Stroke Volume(SV), and Cardiac Output(CO). Negative chronotropic effect=decreased heart rate, at therapeutic levels it slows rate of SA node depolarization & rate of impulses through the conduction system resulting in longer time for the ventricles to fill with blood coming from the atria, which leads to increased SV and increased CO. Uses: treatment CHF, Cardiac dysrhythmias-atrial fib, Side Effects: cardiotoxicity-bradycardia, increased dysrhythmias in some, GI effects-anorexia, nausea,vomiting,abd pain, CNS effects-fatigue,weakness,vision changes,diplopia,blurred vision,yellow-green or white halos around objects, Interacts with: thiazide diuretics and loop diuretics, Lasix(may cause increased dysrhythmias, Ace inhibitors and ARBS-risk of hyperkalemia decreasing dig effects,sympathomimetic meds like dopamine-complement inotropic action of digoxin, Quinidine-increase dig toxicity, Verapamil increases plasma levels of dig NRSG: check pulse and rhythm prior to each dose and if <60 hold the med, take same time daily, watch for hypokalemia- muscle weakness, Labs:therapeutic levels 0.5 - 2.0ng/ml,Cat C
Antilipemics-Fibrates -gemfibrizol(Lopid), fenofibrate(Tricor,Lofibra)
Decreases triglyceride levels-very low density lipoproteins(VLDL) by increasing the rate of VLDL excretion by inhibiting absorption of cholesterol secreted by the bile and from food. Increases HDL levels by promoting production of presursors to HDL's. Uses:reduce plasma triglycerides(VLDL), increase HDL, side effects: Gall stones, Myopathy, Hepatoxicity Interacts with: Warfarin(Coumadin) Statins, bile acid sequestrants-cholestyramine NRSG: advise pt to get baseline cholesterol levels and will need periodic monitoring of labs, take 30 min's prior to breakfast and dinner. Cat X
Antilipemics-Bile acid sequestrants - cholesteryamine(Questran), colestipol(Colestid)
Increases LDL receptor sites on liver cells resulting in increased uptake of serum cholesterol lowering LDL levels. Used in adjunct therapy with atorvastatin and dietary changes to lower cholesterol levels. SE's-constipation, Interacts wtih: Digoxin, Warfarin, Thiazides, tetracyclines by interfering with absorption. NRSG: contraindicated for pt's with biliary disease, advise to take other meds 1 hr prior or 4 hrs after taking this.
Norepinephrine/ Epinephrine
Vasoconstrictor, increases BP and cardiac output
S/E: Palpitations, TISSUE NECROSIS with extravasation
Dopamine
Low dose- dilates renal & coronary arteries, high-dose- vasoconstrictor
S/E: Incr ocular pressure, tachycardia, decr urinary output
Headache- sign of drug excess
Benadryl
Blocks effect of histamines (allergic rx)
S/E: DROWSINESS, confusion
Antianxiety Meds
S/E: Sedation, lethargy, depression, dry mouth, constipation, bradycardia, elev of liver enzymes, urinary retention
**starred have potential for abuse** Do NOT dc abruptly, avoid alcohol
Valium, Librium
Antianxiety, ***
S/E: lethargy, respiratory depression
Ativan, Xanax
Antianxiety, ***
S/E: CONFUSION
Check renal/hepatic function
Versed
Antianxiety- used preop and pre-procedures
S/E: RETROGRADE AMNESIA, hypotension
BuSpar
Antianxiety
S/E: Confusion, hypotension
Requires 3 wks to be effective, not PRN
Avoid alcohol/grapefruit juice
Antacid Meds
S/E: Constipation, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis
Absorp of other meds may be decr if given together
Give with fluids
Maalox
Antacid
S/E: LAXATIVE effect
Milk of Magnesia
Antacid, ***
S/E: when excessive- nau, vom, diarrhea
Antidysrhythmic Meds
Monitor blood pressure (for hypotension), heart rate, QT intervals
Lidocaine
Antidysrhythmic Meds
S/E: Slurred speech, confusion, bradycardia
Propanolol
Antidysrhythmic Meds
S/E: BRONCHOSPASM
Contraindicated for asthma, COPD
Amiodarone
Antidysrhythmic Meds
S/E: Liver toxicity
Verapamil
Antidysrhythmic Meds
S/E: Orthostatic hypertension
Gentamicin, Neomycin
Aminoglycosides
S/E: Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity
Encourage fluids, small frequent meals
Cephalexin, Ceftriaxone
Cephalosporins
S/E: Incr risk of bleeding, superinfections, thrombophlebitis IV
Take with food, avoid alcohol, CROSS ALLERGY: penicillins
Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin
Fluoroquinolones
S/E: Superinfections, hepatotoxicity
Take on empty stomach, monitor liver function
Penicllin G
Penicillins
S/E: Gastritis, diarrhea, allergy
Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim
Sulfonamides
S/E: Peripheral neuropathy, crystalluria, photosensitivity
Take on empty stomach, push fluids, protect from light
Doxycycline
Tetracyclines
S/E: Glossitis, phototoxic rx, decr oral contraceptives effectiveness
Take on empty stomach, protect from sunlight, monitor renal
Bacitracin ointment
Antibacterial ointment
S/E: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity
Silver sulfadiazine cream
Tx for burns
S/E: Neutropenia, burning
CROSS-ALLERGY: sulfonamides
Pyridium
Genitourinary med, antispasmodic & analgesic
S/E: Bright orange urine
Ditropan
Genitourinary med, tx, incontinence, antispasmodic
S/E: Drowsiness, blurred vision, dry mouth
Increase fluids and fiber in diet
Viagra
Tx of ED
S/E: Flushing, hypotension, priapism
DO NOT USE WITH NITRATES- fatal hypotension
Do not drink grapefruit juice
Proscar
Tx of BPH
S/E: Decr libido, impotence
Pregnant women should avoid contact with drug or pts semen
Atropine sulfate
Tx of bradycardia
S/E: Headache, dry mouth, urinary retention
Check for hx of glaucoma, asthma, HTN
Anticholinergic medications
Competes with acetylcholine at receptor sites in ANS for a variety of effects
S/E: Blurred vision, dry mouth, urinary retention, change in HR
Atrovent
Used for longterm tx of bronchospasm, asthma
S/E: Dry mouth
Cogentin
Used for Parkinson's Disease to reduce symptoms
S/E: Anticholinergic eff, orthostatic hypotension
Taper before d/c
Anticoagulant Medications
S/E: Alopecia, hemorrhage, bleeding
Soft toothbrush, electric razor, report black tarry stools, monitor platelet counts
Heparin
Anticoagulant
S/E: thrombocytopenia, anemia
Monitor PTT at 1.5 to 2.0 x control
Antidote: Protamine sulfate
Coumadin
S/E: Diarrhea, rash
Monitor PT at 1.5 to 2.0 x control, avoid diet high in vit K
Antidote: Vitamin K
Anticonvulsant Medications
S/E: Cardiac depression, resp depression, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, ataxia
Tolerance with longterm use, don't dc abruptly
Tegretol
Anticonvulsant
S/E: Myelosuppression, diplopia
Monitor CBC, wear sun protectant
Klonopin
Anticonvulsant, Benzodiazepine
S/E: Confusion, drowsiness
Topamax
Anticonvulsant
S/E: Vision problems, renal calculi
Valium
Anticonvulsant, ***
S/E: Hypotension, tachycardia
Alcohol incr CNS depression
Keppra
Anticonvulsant
S/E: Dizziness, suicidal ideation
Avoid alcohol
Dilantin
Anticonvulsant
S/E: Hirsutism, GI upset, gingival hypertrophy
Urine/sweat may turn red/brown, incr exposure to sunlight
Phenobarbital
Anticonvulsant, ***
S/E: Drowsiness, initially constricts pupils
Magnesium sulfate
Anticonvulsant, used for pre-eclampsia
S/E: Flushing, extreme thirst, hypotension
Monitor intake and output, check knee jerks before each dose
Depakote
Anticonvulsant
S/E: Sedation, tremors, prolonged bleeding time
Monitor platelets, bleeding time, liver functions
Nardil, Marplan
Antidepressive, MAOi
S/E: Hypertensive crisis when taken with foods containing tyramine, photosensitivity, sexual dysfunction
Do not take with SSRIs, avoid other CNS depressants, monitor for urinary retention
Prozac, Zoloft
Antidepressive, SSRI
S/E: Dry mouth, sexual dysfunction, weight gain
Take in AM, 4 full weeks for full effect, do not give with MAOi, monitor for thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and anemia
Elavil
Antidepressive, Tricyclic
S/E: Photosensitivity, anticholinergic effs, bone marrow depression
Therapeutic eff in 1-3 wks, give at night, S/E decr over time, do not abruptly stop, avoid alcohol, avoid exposure to sunlight
Humalog
Rapid-acting Insulin, used in insulin pumps
Onset: 5-15 min, peak: 1 hr, duration: 3hr
Humalin R
Short-acting insulin
Onset: 30-60 min, peak: 2-3 hr, duration: 4-6hr
NPH
Intermediate-acting insulin
Onset: 2-4hr, peak: 6-12 hr, 16-20 hr
Lantus
Very long acting insulin
Onset: 1 hr, peak: none (continuous), duration: 24 hr
Insulin
S/E: Hypoglycemia
Have pts rotate sites, only reg insulin given IV, all others SQ
-when mixing insulin in one syringe, draw up regular (clear) before Lantus (cloudy)
Glucophage
Oral hypoglycemic
S/E: Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, hypoglycemia
Avoid alcohol
Glucagon
Oral hyperglycemic
S/E: Nausea, vomiting, bronchospasm, hypotension
May repeat q15 mins
Antidiarrheal Meds
S/E: Drowsiness, constipation, anticholinergic effs
Monitor for urinary retention
Pepto-Bismol
Antidiarrheal
S/E: Darkening of stools and tongue, constipation
Give 2 hr before and 3 hr after other meds, do not give for more than 48hr
Lomotil
Antidiarrheal
S/E: Sedation, tachycardia, dizziness
Decr peristalsis, onset 45-60 min
Compazine
Antiemetic med
S/E: Orthostatic hypotension, diplopia, photosensitivity
Antiemetic Meds
S/E: Drowsiness, sedation, anticholinergic effs
Check CBC and liver func with prolonged use
Reglan
Antiemtic med
S/E: Restlessness, extrapyramidal symptoms, dystonic rx
Take before meals, use with tube feedings to decr asp
Amphotericin B
Antifungal med
S/E: GI upset, hypokalemia, seizures, hematological, cardiac, and hepatic abnorms
Protect med from sunlight
Questran
Antilipemic med
S/E: Constipation, rash, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency
Sprinkle powder in beverage or wet food
Lisinopril
AntiHTN, ACE inhibitor
S/E: Tachycardia, MI, persistent dry cough
Small, freq meals, change position slowly
Propanolol
AntiHTN, Beta Blocker
S/E: Bradycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, impotence, bronchospasm
Do not dc abruptly, provide rest periods, take with meals.
Cardizem
AntiHTN, Calcium Channel Blocker
S/E: Peripheral edema, angina, flushing, rash, impotence
Do not chew sustained-release tabs, avoid grapefruit juice, monitor VS
Losartan
AntiHTN, Ace Receptor Blockers
S/E: Angioedema, renal failure, orthostatic HTN
Monitor for edema.
Methyldopa
AntiHTN
S/E: Drowsiness, orthostatic hypotension, CHF
Don't dc abruptly
Hydralazine
AntiHTN
Lithium
Bipolar med, mood stabilizer
S/E: Fine hand tremors, reversible leukocytosis
Monitor blood levels, norm = 1-1.5meQ/L
Intoxication signs: Vom, diarrhea, drowsiness, ataxia
Have good fluid and salt intake
Tegretol
Bipolar med, mood stabilizer
S/E: Drowsiness, ataxia, CHF, thombocytopenia
Check CBC, BUN, LFTs, basic urinalysis
Drowsiness disappears in 3-4 days
Cisplatin platinol-AQ, Methotrexate, Bleomycin
Antineoplastic med
S/E: Bone marrow suppression, alopecia, renal toxicity
Check hematopoietic func weekly, encourage fluids
Levodopa
Antiparkinsonian med
S/E: Mental status changes, twitching, anorexia
Admin in long, prolonged doses, give with food
Sinemet
Antiparkinsonian med, Levodopa plus Carbidopa
S/E: Hemolytic anemia, dystonic movements, dry mouth
Plavix
Antiplatelet med
S/E: Hemorrhage, bleeding
Check for bleeding gums, check before OTC meds
Aspirin
Antiplatelet med
S/E: GI bleeding, metabolic acidosis, tinnitus
Observe for bleeding gums, give with milk, water, food
Antipsychotic S/E
EPS--> Pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia (muscle spasm), acute dystonic reaction (tightening of jaw, oculogyric crisis), akathisia (inability to sit or stand still), tardive dyskinesia (abnorm involuntary movements)
Tx: IM benadryl

More: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (rigidity, fever, ANS dysfunction, seizures, coma), orthostatic hypotension
Haldol
Antipsychotic, high potency
S/E: Low sedative effect, high incidence of EPS
Thorazine
Antipsychotic, low potency
S/E: High sedative effect, hypotension
Patient has incr sensitivity to sunlight, no potential for abuse
Risperdal
Antipsychotic, atypical
S/E: Orthostatic hypotension, significant weight gain, moderate sedation, mild EPS
Acetaminophen
S/E: Uncommon GI effects, liver dysfunction
Prophylthiouracil (PTU)
Antithyroid
S/E: Leukopenia, fever, jaundice
Check CBC and hepatic function
Synthroid
Thyroid Replacement
S/E: Nervousness, palpitations, insomnia
Take in morning, monitor weight, tell pt to report chest pain, sweating, obtain baseline VS
Isoniazid
Antitubercular
S/E: hepatitis, peripheral neuritis, fever
Give B6 as prophylaxis for neuritis, check LFTs, avoid alcohol, give before meals, do not combine with Dilantin
Rifampin
Antitubercular
S/E: Hepatitis, fever
Orange urine, tears, saliva, check LFTs, take with food
Dextromethorphan
Antitussive
S/E: Drowsiness, dizziness
Monitor cough type and frequency
Guaifenesin
Expectorant
S/E: Dizziness, headache, nau/vom
Take with glass of water
Acyclovir
Antiviral
S/E: Headache, seizures, diarrhea
Slows progression of symptoms, does not prevent transmission, check LFTs and renal test
AZT
Antiviral, used with AIDS
S/E: Anemia, paresthesias, agranulocytosis
Teach pts to strictly comply with dosing schedule
Ritalin
Tx for ADHD
S/E: nervousness, tachycardia, weight loss
Monitor CBC, platelet counts, give at least 6 hr ac bedtime
Fosamax
Tx/prevention of osteoporosis
S/E: Arthralgia, esophagitis
Take meds in morning with water and remain upright for 30 min, monitor bone density tests
Aminophylline
Bronchodilators
S/E: Nervousness, dizziness, tachycardia
Albuterol
Bronchodilator, short-acting
S/E: Nervousness, hyperactivity, TACHYCARDIA
Digoxin
Cardiac glycoside
S/E: Bradycardia, visual disturbances, abdom pain
Monitor renal func, take apical pulse before admin dose
Norm level: 0.125-0.5mg IV
Toxic S/E: Halos around dark objects, heart block, dysrhythmias
Hydrochlorothiazide
Diuretics
S/E: Hypokalemia, hyperlycemia, hypotension
Don't give at bedtime, weigh patient daily, encourage K+ foods
Spironlactone
Diuretics
S/E: Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hepatic/renal damage
Avoid salt substitutes, give with meals
Furosemide
Diuretics
S/E: Hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hypotension
Monitor BP, potassium. Weigh pt daily, don't give at bedtime, encourage K+ foods
Os-Cal
Calcium supplement
S/E: Dysrhythmias, constipation
Monitor EKG
Magnesium chloride
Magnesium supplement
S/E: Weak or absent deep tendon reflexes, hypotension, resp paralysis
Monitor respirations, test knee-jerk reflexes before each dose
Potassium chloride
Potassium supplement
S/E: Dysrythmias, cardiac arrest, resp paralysis
Monitor EKG, take after meals with full glass of water
Feosol
Iron supplement
S/E: Nau, constipation, black stools
Use straw to avoid staining teeth, monitor Hgb, NO milk for liq preparations
Dexamethasone
Glucocorticoids
S/E: Edema, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia
Do not abruptly dc, check weight, protect from fractures
Laxatives/Stool Softeners
S/E: Diarrhea, dependence
Bisacodyl
Stimulant
S/E: Mild cramps, nausea, diarrhea
Do not take with milk, eff in 6-12 hr
Docusate
Stool softener
S/E: Abdom cramps
Metamucil
Stool bulk-forming
S/E: Obstruction of GI tract
Take with a full glass of water.
Morphine sulfate
Opioid, ***
S/E: Sedation, resp depression, constipation
Monitor VS, bowel patterns, observe for dependence
Dilaudid
Opioid, ***
S/E: Sedation, hypotension, urine retention
Keep naloxone available, monitor bowel patterns
Oxycodone
Opioid, ***
S/E: Lightheadedness, sedation, constipation
Admin with milk after meals
Nitroglycerin
Antianginal
S/E: Flushing, hypotension, tachycardia
Subling q 5 min x 3, protect drug from light, do not dc abruptly
Ibuprofen
NSAIDs
S/E: GI upset, dizziness, headache
Use cautiously with aspirin allergy
Cimetedine
Anti-ulcer
S/E: Diarrhea, confusion
Dose at bedtime.
Levonorgestrel / Ethinyl Estradiol (BCP)
Birth Control Pill
S/E: Chance of DVT, nausea, breakthrough bleeding
Take at same time daily, no smoking
Flomax
Decr urinary urgency, hesitancy, nocturia in BPH
S/E: Dizziness, headache, orthostatic HTN
Change position slowly, admin at bedtime, admin 30 min after same meal each day
-afil
phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor
-asone
corticosteroid
-bicin
antineoplastic; cytotoxic agent
-bital
barbiturate (sedative)
-caine
local anesthetic
cef-, ceph-
cephalosporin antibiotic
-cillin
penicillin antibiotic
cort
corticosteroid
-cycline
tetracycline antibiotic
-dazole
anthelmintic; antibiotic; antibacterial
-dipine
calcium channel blocker
-dronate
bisphosphonate; bone resorption inhibitor
-eprazole
proton pump inhibitor (PPI)
-fenac
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
-floxacin
quinolone antibiotic
-gliptin
antidiabetic; inhibitor of the DPP-4 enzyme
-glitazone
antidiabetic; thiazolidinedione
-iramine
antihistamine
-lamide
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
-mab
monoclonal antibody
-mustine
alkylating agent (antineoplastic)
-mycin
antibiotic; antibacterial
-nacin
muscarinic antagonist (anticholinergic)
-nazole
antifungal
-olol
beta blocker
-olone
corticosteroid; anabolic steroid
-onide
corticosteroid
-oprazole
proton pump inhibitor (PPI)
parin; -parin
antithrombotic; anticoagulant (blood thinner)
-phylline
xanthine derivative (bronchodilator)
-pramine
tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)
pred; pred-
corticosteroid
-pril
ACE inhibitor
-profen
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
-sartan
angiotensin II receptor blocker; ARB
-semide
loop diuretic (water pill)
-setron
serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist; antiemetic and antinauseant
-statin
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor; statins
sulfa-
antibiotic; anti-infective; anti-inflammatory
-tadine
antihistamine; antiviral; anti-influenza-A
-terol
beta agonist; bronchodilator
-thiazide
thiazide diuretic (water pill)
-tinib
antineoplastic (kinase inhibitor)
-trel
female hormone (progestin)
tretin-; tretin; -tretin
retinoid; dermatologic agent; form of vitamin A
-triptan
antimigraine; selective 5-HT receptor agonist
-tyline
tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)
vir; -vir
antiviral; (anti-HIV, anti-hepatitis, anti-herpes, anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV), anti-flu)
-vudine
antiviral; nucleoside analogues
-zepam
benzodiazepine
-zolam
benzodiazepine
-zosin
alpha blocker
-ase
thrombolytic (clot buster)
enzymes (wound debridement)
-azepam
benzodiazepine (anxiety, insomnia, seizures, alcohol withdrawal)
-azine
phenothiazine (psychosis, antihistamine)
-azole
proton pump inhibitor (ulcers, acid secretion)
antifungal (fungal infection)
-barbital
barbiturate (sedation, anesthesia, insomnia, seizures)
cef-
cephalosporins (anti-infectives)
-caine
anesthetic
-cillin
penicillins (anti-infectives)
-cycline
antibiotic
-dipine
calcium channel blocker

EXCEPTIONS:
diltiazem
verapimil
-floxacin
flouraquinolones (anti-infectives)
-pramine, -ptyline
tricyclic antidepressants (depression)
-lone, -sone
corticosteroids (metabolism, inflammation, electolytes, water)
-mab
monoclonal antibodies (cancer)
-micin, -mycin, -kasin
aminoglycosides (anti-infectives)
-navir
antiviral, protease inhibitors (HIV, Hep C)
-olol
beta blocker (post MI, HTN, dysrhythmias)
-oxin
cardiac glycoside (CHF, dysrhythmias)
-osin
alpha blockers (BPH, HTN)
-parin
anticoagulant (prevent DVT, PE, MI, stroke)
-pril
ACE inhibitor (diurese for HTN, CHF)
-statin
HMG-COA reductase inhibitors (high cholestorol)
-sartan
ARB angiotensin II blocker (diurese for HTN, CHF)
-terol and -terenol
beta 2 agonist / sympathomimetic (asthma, COPD)
-thiazide
thiazide diuretics (HTN, edema)
-tidine
H2 antagoinst (ulcers, acid secretion)
-tropin
pituitary hormone
-vir-
anti-viral (HIV, Hep C)
protease inhibitors (HIV, Hep C)
-zolam
benzodiazepine (anxiety, insomnia, seizures, alcohol withdrawal)
-izine
H1 antagonist (n/v)
-lukast
leukotriene antagoinst (asthma, bronchitis)
-zoline, -edrine
decongestent (nasal congestion)
-pressin
pituitary hormone (vasoconstriction, Na in, K out)
-calc- or -calci-
parathyroid hormone (effect calcium levels)
-cort-
corticosteroids (metabolism, inflammation, electolytes, water)
-zolamide
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (glaucoma, seizures, altitude sickness, ulcers, osteoperosis)
-setron
HT3 antagonist (n/v)
-ine
beta-adrenergic agonists (bronchodilate, increase vasc resist)
ex: norepinephrine (Levophed), dopamine (Inotropin)
used cardiac arrest, COPD
adfx: anticholinergic, dysrhythmias
-pam
benzodiazepine
adfx: depression, CNS depression, addictive. d/c slowly
caffeine and nicotine decreases effectiveness
-lol
beta blocker
adfx: bronchospasm
antibiotics general
allergic reaction (after 1st time), superinfection, liver kidney toxic
do C&S, encourage fluids, toxic when expired
peak level about an hour after IV, trough just after it's hung
-mycin (micin)
aminoglycosides-inhibit protein synthesis gram neg
adfx:oto and nephrotoxic
check cranial nerve 8 (ear)
ceph (cef)
cephalosporin-tonsillitis, prophylaxis, meningitis-bacterial wall inhibitor
adfx: bone marrow depression, GI upset, cross allergy w/pcn, protein/glucose in urine
do not drink etoh, take with food
-floaxcin
fluoroquinalones- dna inhibitor
anthrax tx, e. coli
adfx: decreased WBC, hct. elevated liver enzymes
don't take with food
-thromycin
macrolide-cell membrane binder
used in pcn allergy. used for dental prophylaxis in valve disorders
adfx: confusion, increases effects of coumadin, theophylline
take without food
-cillin
penicillin-inhibits synthesis of cell wall
severe infx-syphillis, lyme disease...
adfx: stomatitis, allergy
take without food
sulf, zulf, bactrim
sulfonamide-antagonizes folic acid synth
UC, crohn's, uri
adfx: peripheral neuropathy, photosensitive, crystalluria, stomatitis
take with food, encourage fluids, mouth care
-cycline
tetracycline-prevents protein synthesis
baby eye drops, acne
adfx: discoloration of primary teeth in utero or in early childhood, phototoxic, toxic when expired
take without food
uti meds
furadantin-anti-infective adfx: asthma attack, take with food and cranberry juice
pyridian-urinary tract analgesic adfx: HA, vertigo, turns pee orange, take with meals

anti-impotence drugs adfx: HA, hypotn, priaprism
grapefruit juice interaction
lipitor, viagra, ...
anticholinergic
block parasymp nerve
dilate pupil, bronchodilation, decrease secretions, decrease GI motility and secretions
uses: eye exams, motion sickness
adfx:urinary retention, dry mouth, hypotn and inc HR
probanthine, atropine, -bromide, ium
not with meals or paralytic ileus
-arin
anticoagulant
adfx: bleeding, hematuria
heparin blocks conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, used in PE, venous thrombosis, after acute MI. PTT: 30-75?
antidote for heparin: protamine sulfate
warfarin interferes with vit k clotting factors. used in PE, vt, prophylaxis after acute MI. adtl adfx: alopecia. takes 5 days for therapy to work PT: 14-35 INR: 2-3 vit c decreases effectiveness
antidote for warfarin: vit k. avoid vit k while taking it.
AVOID GARLIC, GINKO, GINGER w/ anticoags
anticonvulsant
adfx: gingival hypertrophy, resp depression, aplastic anemia
turn urine pink or reddish brown

Dilantin: can cause cardiac arrest if pushed too fast CANNOT BE MIXED WITH ANOTHER MED

no carbonation with depakote
mARplan, pARnate, nARdil (trade names)
MAOI antidepressant-4 wk to effectiveness
adfx: Hypertensive crisis with tyramine foods: aged cheese, liver, yogurt, beer, wine, pickled foods, herring, bologna, salami, bananas.
potentiate alcohol, interactions with CNS stimulants or cold meds
-etine, -aline
SSRI antidepressant- 4 weeks for effect
adfx: anxiety, urinary/bowel retention, insomnia at hs, pink urine
suicide risk on upswing
tricyclic antidepressant
used also for sleep apnea
amitryptalin (Elavil), imipramine (Tofranil), desipramine (Norpramin)
adfx: postural hypotension, confusion, urinary retention
suicide risk
take at hs
2-6 weeks for effectiveness
wean off
no alcohol, care in sun
heterocyclic antidepressant
Wellbutrin, trazadone
used also for smoking cessation
adfx: wellbutrin- agitation and insomnia. trazadone- sedation
wean slowly, no alcohol
-ase
antidiabetic (also Dymelor) for type II only
adfx: skin reaction, hypoglycemia
take prior to eating- EAT. alcohol, aspirin, sulfonamides, oral birth control, maois affect action
glucagon
used to reverse hypoglycemia
change glycogen to glucose and release it to the body
adfx: hypotn, bronchospasm. may repeat in 15 minutes. once alert, give longer acting carbohydrates
-ylate
antidiarrheals (also immodium)
adfx: anticholinergic, constipation
cxn in unknown abd pain
antiemetics
trimethobenzamide (Tigan), procorperazine (Compazine), metoclopramide (Reglan), meclizine (Antivert)
block dopamine, increase GI motility
adfx: anticholinergic, sedation
prophylaxis for chemotherapy as well
may cause Reye's used during viral infx
antifungals
fungizone (Amphotericin), mycostatin (Nystatin)
impair cell membrane
adfx: liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, pruritis
take with food
anti-gout
cholsalide (Colchicine), benemid (Probenecid), Zyloprim (Allopurinol)
decreases uric acid
Probenecid increases action of Cipro
Colchicine used only in acute gout syndrome
Probenecid for chronic
adfx: agranulocytosis, renal calculi-flush kidneys at treatment
may take with food/milk/antacids
Antihistamine
chlor-trimeton, diphenhydramine (Benadryl), promethazine (Phenergan)
adfx: drowsiness, anticholinergic, photosensitivity, bronchospasm
hard candy for dry mouth
-statin
antihyperlipidemia- statins block synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides
(sequestrans-Questran-blocks absorption)
adfx: constipation, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency
take hs or at least 30 minutes before meals. assess diet
cannot take with other meds
-pril
antihypertensives
ACE Inhibitors-affect arteries-vasodilation in whole body
use for HTN and CHF
adfx: lethargy initially, orthostatic hypotension
take without food
-lol
antihypertensives
beta adrenergic blockers- decreases excitability of heart, decreases oxygen consumption
use: angina, SVT, HTN
adfx: bronchospasm, HR changes
take with food, taper off to avoid rebound HTN
-ipine
antihypertensives
also diltiazem, verapamil
calcium channel blocker-inhibit calcium influx across cell membrane to slow conduction and dilate coronary vessels and decrease HR
uses: angina, HTN, interstitial cystitis
adfx: hypotn, GI upset
SR-do not chew, crush, open
-artan
antihypertensives
angiotensin II-receptors
uses: HTN, heart failure, MI, neuropathy, stroke prophylaxis
adfx: dizziness, GI distress
SR-do not chew, crush, open
-azosin
antihypertensive
alpha 1-adrenergic blockers in peripheral vasculature
use: HTN, BPH
adfx: orthostatic hypotn, reflex tachycardia, Nasal Congestion, periph edema
first dose at HS-causes fainting initially
centrally acting alpha-adrenergic
antihypertensive
centrally acting alpha-adrenergic-decrease rate and force of contraction
Catapres, Aldomet
uses: HTN
adfx: orthostatic hypotn, Sedation
taper off
direct acting vasodilators
minoxidil, hydralazine (Apresoline)-relax smooth muscle
uses: HTN
minoxidil topical is Rogaine
adfx: ortho hypotn, tachycardia (may use with B-blocker to prevent), increased hair
check pulse when taking med
meds for bipolar disorder
lithium, Tegretol, Depakote
block catecholamines
Lithium salt is dangerous: tight therapeutic range. blood drawn 2-3 weeks. 3000 mL water/day. evaluated q2-3 wk
Tegretol, Depakote: antipsychotic/convulsant watch kidney and liver
adfx: GI upset, Tremors, polydipsia, polyuria
take with food.
alkylating agents
anti-neoplastic- interferes with rapid DNA replication
used: leukemia, multiple myeloma
Csplatin, busulfan (Mylerin), cyclophosphamide (Cytoxin)
adfx: very hepatotoxic, basic chemo adfx: bone marrow suppression, decreased WBC, platelets, RBCs, bleeding, GI s/s, alopecia, lost nails, infertility
check hematopoesis, CBC
antimetabolites
anti-neoplastic-inhibit DNA polymerase
fluorouracil (5-FU), Methotrexate
used: ALL, CA of breast, colon, pancreas
adfx: basic- GI-N/V, ulcers, decreased RBC, WBC, plt
CA -mycin (trade name)
anti-tumor antineoplastic-interfere with DNA and RNA synthesis.
ex:Adriamycin
use: CA
adfx: basic chemo: stomatitis, alopecia, bone marrow suppression
hormonal agents
antineoplastic- block hormone input into CA cells
ex: tomoxifen, testosterone
use: hormone-sensitive CA
adfx: leukopenia, bone pain, hypercalcemia, effects of individual hormone
vin-
Vinca-alkyloid antineoplastic. derived from periwinkle. interferes with cell division
ex: vinblastine
use: CA- affects every rapid producing cell in body
adfx: CNA Depression, stomatitis, alopecia, bone marrow suppression
check reflexes, give with Zyloprim to reduce uric acid and adfx
risk of extravasation. check IV
-dopa
antiparkinson. essentially replace dopamine
(also parlodil)
adfx: ataxia, anticholinergic, dizziness
B6 can reverse effects, avoid CNS depressants
-azine
antipsychotic-block dopamine receptors
adfx: akasthesia, dyskinesia, dystonia, parkinsonian, tardive dyskinesia, leukopenia, can stunt growth in kids
avoid etoh and caffeine
-cyclovir
antiviral, inhibits DNA and RNA (includes non -cyclovirs too)
use in herpes, HIV
adfx: HA, dizziness, GI
doesn't cure.
-dronate
biophosphenates- antiosteoporosis inhibit bone resorption
adfx: esophagitis, arthralgia
-tropium, -ol, -phylline
bronchodilators
uses:COPD, asthma (terbutaline for preterm labor)
adfx: tachycardia, dysrhythmias, palpitations, anticholinergic
take bronchodilator first
-zolamide
anti-glaucoma, decreases production of aqueous humor
adfx: blurred vision, lethargy, depression, anorexia, decrease potassium
-oxin
cardiac glycoside-increase force of myocardial contraction, slow HR
Left heart failure
adfx: bradycardias, N/V, visual disturbance
hold if pulse <60 in adult, <70 in older kids, <90 in infants, young kids
check K+ levels- low potassium increases risk of toxicity. eat plenty of potassium
loading doses--- 0.5, then 0.25, then 0.125 for daily dose
antidote: digibind
-fate
cytoprotective agents
form barrier on duodenal ulcers
adfx: constipation, vertigo, flatulance
take without food
-sone
glucocorticoids
uses: asthma, COPD, some leukemias, Addison's, Crohn's
adfx: infxn, mask s/s of infxn, insomnia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, psychosis, depression, stunted growth
wean over time
ACE Inhibitors
Antihypertensive
Acetaminophen
Non Opioid Analgesic & Antipyretic
Acyclovir
Antiviral
Albuterol
Bronchodilator
Aldactone
Diuretic
Allopurinol
Antigout Agent & Antihyperuricemic
Ambien
Sedative/Hypnotic
Aminophylline
Bronchodilator
Amiodarone
Antiarrhythmic
Amphotericin
Antifungal
Ampicillin
Anti-infective
Antacids
Antiulcer
Antabuse
Alcohol Abuse Therapy Adjunct
Aspirin
Non Opiod Analgesic & Antipyretic
Atenolol
Antianginal & antihypertensive
Atropine
Antiarrhythmic
AZT
Antiretroviral
Benadryl
Allergy & Cough & Cold
Beta Blockers
Antihypertensive
Calcium Channel Blocker
Antihypertensive
Captopril
Antihypertensive
Cialis
Erectile Dysfunction Agent
Ciprofloxacin
Anti-infective
Clozaril
Antipsychotic
Codeine
Allergy, Cough & Cold, Antitussive & Opioid Analgesic
Coumadin
Anticoagulant
Cyclosporine
Immunosuppressant & Antirheumatic
Digoxin
Antiarrythmic & Inotropic
Dilatin
Antiarryhmic & Anticonvulsant
Evista
Bone Reabsorbtion Inhibitor
Fentanyl
Opioid Analgesic
Flagyl
Antiprotozoas, Anti-infective & Antiulcer
Gentamicin
Anti-infective
Glucophage
Antidiabetic
Haloperidol
Antipsychotic
Heparin
Anticoagulant
Imitrex
Vascular Headache Suppressant
Insulin
Antidiabetic Hormone
Kayexalate
Hypokalemic & Electrolyte Modifiers
Keflex
Anti-infective
Lactulose
Laxitive
Lasix
Diurectic
Levodopa
Antiparkinson
Lidocaine
Anesthetic
Lipitor
Lipid Lowering Agent
Lithium
Mood Stabilizer
Magnesium Sulfate
Mineral & Electrolyte Replacement
Mannitol
Diuretic
MAO
Inhibitor Anti-depressant
Morphine
Opioid Analgesic
Morphine
Opioid Analgesic
Narcan
Antidote
Neomycin
Anti-infective
Neostigmine
Antimyasthenics
Neupogen
Colony Stimulating Factor
Neurontin
Analgesic Adjunct, Anticonvulsant & mood stabilizer for chronic pain or bipolar
Nitroglycerin
Antianginal
Pitocin
Hormone, induces labor
Plaquenil
Antimalaria & antirheumatic
Procrit
Antianemic
Pronestyl
Antiarrhythmic
Protonix
Antiulcer Agent
Questran
Lipid Lowering Agent
Reglan
Antiemetic
Remicade
Antirheumatic
Restoril
Sedative & Hypnotic
Rifampin
Antitubercular
Ritalin
CNS Stimulant
Steroids (Prednisone)
Anti-asthmatic & Corticosteroid
Synthroid
Hormone for Thyroid
Tagamet
Antiulcer Agent
Tetracycline
Anti-infective
Thorazine
Antiemetic & Antipsychotic
Tofranil
Antidepressant