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the appeal to any document. tradition, or person that is believed to possess the controlling explanation regarding a particular issue


identify and name crucial phenomena


focuses on what questions and is usually based on one or more "facts"


specify why something happens and to provide the reason or process by which the phenomenon occurs

normative political knowledge

the fundamental ideas that can be the basis of an individual's beliefs and actions

political analysis

the attempt to describe and then explain politics

political science

a set of techniques, concepts, and approaches whose objective is to increase the clarity and accuracy of understandings about the political world


the process through which power and influence are used to promote certain values and interests


a value judgement that indicates what should occur and should be done


sets of systematically related generalizations that provide explanations and predictions about the linkages between certain concepts

affective orientation

any feelings or emotions evoked in a person by political phenomena

classical liberalism

places the higher value on individual freedom and posits that the role of government should be quite limited

cognitive orientation

what she believes are political facts


at the core of conservatism is the commitment to sustain traditional values and forms of behavior and to maintain social order

democratic socialism

a variation of socialist ideology that treats greater egalitarianism as its primary goal bus also assumes that its goals can and should be implemented by a gov. that comes to power and rules by democratic means, not violence or repression

evaluative orientation

synthesis of facts and feelings into a judgement about some political phenomenon


a political ideology that places fundamental importance on the unity and harmony of gov. and society and is defined particularly by its opposition to forces that might weaken the collective unity

Marxist- Leninist socialism

It begins with three assumptions regarding the changes necessary to produce the key of equal and social justice

materialist values

survival values


the combo of beliefs and actions is the essence of the domain of political science

national character studies

a traditional approach that attempts to capture the essence of a people's political culture

normative political knowledge

answers questions about what ought to be rather than simply providing descriptions and explanations of what is

political belief system

the configuration of an individual's political orientations

political culture

the general configuration of a particular people's political beliefs

political elite

those who have relatively high levels of power, influence, knowledge, and involvement in political life

political ideology

a comprehensive set of beliefs about the political world, including a specification of desirable political goals and the best way to achieve those goals

post materialist values

self-expression values

public opinion polls

when the attitudes of many people are gathered, aggregated, and summarized

social contract

the agreement to allow such a government to rule


the most important goal is to provide high-quality, relatively equal conditions of life for everyone, with an active state assisting in the achievement of this goal

survey research

taking a carefully selected sample of the populatiopn and then asking each person a series of questions that aims to tap individual political beliefs and actions

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