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Understanding World Religions Cp. 1
This set of Flashcards accompanies Irving Hexham's textbook "Understanding World Religions" (Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 2011).
Terms in this set (26)
Understanding World Religions
These Flashcards,which contain 25 terms, are designed to supplement chapter one of Irving Hexham's book "Understanding World Religions," Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 2011.
How did Immanuel Kant define religion?
The recognition of all our duties as divine commands.
Who was Immanuel Kant?
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804): one of the most important philosophers of all time. Born in Königsberg, East Prussia, he spent most of his life in scholarly study. Awakened from what he called his dogmatic slumber by the works of David Hume, sought a philosophical basis for knowledge which avoided complete skepticism. His work also tends to reduce religion to morality. He is best know for his:
The Critique of Pure Reason (1781)
Max Müller's definition of religion
A body of doctrines containing all that constitutes the faith of a believer. A faculty of faith that distinguishes man from animals.
Who was Max Müller?
Friedrich Maximilian Müller (1823-1900), who is known as "the father of comparative religion" was a German philologist and orientalist who became professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University. He translated the Rg Veda (1849-1874, 6 Vols.), wrote numerous books on religion, and edited the Sacred Books of the East series.
Emile Durkheim's definition of religion?
A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things. It unites into one single moral community all those who adhere to them.
Who was Emile Durkheim?
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) was one of the founders of modern sociology. His main works were:
The Division of Labor in Society (1893)
Rules of Sociological Method (1895)
The Elementary form of Religious Life (1912)
How did Paul Tillich understand religion?
As ultimate concern: that which concerns you ultimately.
Who was Paul Tillich?
Paul Tillich (1886-1965) was a German/American, philosopher-theologian who fled to the United States, where he taught at Union Theological Seminary. His work combined Platonism, medieval mysticism, German idealism and existentialism. His best known books are Systematic Theology (1963), The Courage to Be (1952) and Theology of Culture (1959).
How does Fred Welbourn see religion?
As an ontological commitment - rather like one's skin.
Who was Fred (F.B.) Welbourn?
A British scholar who pioneered the study of African religions particularly African Independent Churches. His main works were:
East African Rebels (1961)
A Place to Feel at Home (1966)
Atoms and Ancestors (1968) This book may be downloaded in pdf format from: http://www.understandingworldreligions.com
How does Rodney Stark define religion?
Religion refers to systems of general compensators based on supernatural assumptions.
Who is Rodney Stark?
Rodney Stark (1940-) is a leading American Sociologist and early proponent of the secularization thesis which he later repudiated. He is best known for his co-authored article "Hellfire and Delinquency" which found no correlation between religious belief and delinquent behavior: a position which he now regards as wrong due to inadequate sampling. His many books include:
The Future of Religion (1985)
For the Glory of God (2003)
Ninian Smart's model for identifying religion
A set if institutionalized rituals, identified with a tradition and expressing and/or evoking sacral sentiments directed at a divine or trans divine focus seen in the context of the human phenomenological environment and at least partially described by myths or by myths and doctrines.
Who was Ninian Smart?
Ninian Smart (1927-2001) pioneered Religious Studies as an academic field at the University of Lancaster and promoted its teaching in English schools. His main works were:
Reasons and Faiths" (1958)
Doctrine and Argument in Indian Philosophy (1964)
The World's Religions (1989)
The Long Search television series
What are "sacral sentiments"?
Feelings, or sentiments, that express or react to the sacred. The sacred is what is set apart; a synonym for holy. It refers to that which belongs to God, the deity, or supernatural, as opposed to the secular or profane.
What is a divine or trans-divine focus?
A focus that is beyond this world. God or some similar concept such as Nivarna that transcends everyday life
What is a ritual?
Repetitive behavior fixed by tradition.
What does phenomenological mean?
In Smart's usage it is the totality of life and human experience grasped as a whole.
What is a myth?
A culturally formative story.
How does Rudolf Bultmann define a myth?
Pre-scientific stories that contain a truth about life but cannot be accepted as real or true.
Who was Rudolf Bultmann?
Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976) was Professor of New Testament studies at the University of Marburg. He developed the method of Form Criticism as a radical methodological skepticism. In his later work he developed a program of demythologizing the New Testament in terms of the existentialist philosophy. His works include The History of the Synoptic Tradition (1921), Jesus Christ and Mythology (1960) and Theology of the New Testament (1952 and 1955 Vols. 1 and 2).
How does Mircea Eliade define myth?
A story containing unique insights into religious truth and the nature of reality.
Who was Mircea Eliade?
Mircea Eliade (1907-1988) was a Rumanian scholar who shaped the teaching of Religious Studies in America. His work reflects an interest in a mythical abstract spirituality. Critics accuse him of being a Fascist. His main works were:
"Yoga, Immortality and Freedom" (1936)
"The Myth of the Eternal Return" (1954)
"Patterns in Comparative Religion" (1958).
What is implicit religion?
The actual practices and beliefs of people discovered by careful observation. What people do in contrast to what they say, or believe, they do.
Why is Religious Studies called a field and not a discipline?
Academic fields study a particular area, or topic, using methods and theories borrowed from various disciplines. In Religious Studies the main disciplines used are anthropology/sociology; history; philology; and philosophy.
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