APWH 21: Cross-Cultural Interaction

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bubonic plague
Pandemic disease that spread in the late Middle Ages. Wiped out 10 million Chinese people and 25 million Europeans.
100 Years' War
War that began over English land in France and changed the nature of warfare.
Ibn Battuta
Muslim traveler who helped teach sharia law to newly-converted areas. Known for harsh criticisms and punishments. His writings reveal much about how Muslims viewed outsiders at the end of the Middle Ages.
Marco Polo
Traveled from his native Genoa to Yuan China. A book about his travels inspired hundreds of other Italian merchants.
Zheng He
Chinese admiral who took enormous "treasure ships" to establish Chinese dominance of the Indian Ocean.
tsar
Leader of the Russians/the Russian word for Caesar.
Ivan III
Ended Mongolian dominance in Russia and established Muscovy as a major principality.
Renaissance
Means "rebirth" because it is considered the rebirth of the Classical Era. The time period after the European Middle Ages marked by innovations in art, architecture, diplomacy, and technology.
Humanism
A Renaissance cultural movement that favored Classical philosophy over medieval scholasticism. Focused on living among the world instead of separated from it.
Medici
Powerful trading family in Renaissance Italy. Known as patrons of the arts.
Machiavelli
Renaissance Italian political philosopher. Focused on the good of the state instead of the good of Christendom.