APUSH Chapter 28

Norton
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Vietminh
a national liberation movement which dated its foundation to May 19 1941 in South China. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from France and later to oppose the Japanese occupation.
Ho Chi Minh
organized Vietnamese Communist Party and was Communist leader of Vietnam from 1945 through the Vietnam War
The Cold War
a protracted contest between the US and the Soviet Union; Soviets accused the US of trying to achieve world domination, which is why they had to be on the defensive; diplomatic tension between the United States and the Soviet Union that divided much of the world into polarized camps, capitalist against communist; 1946-1991
The Third World
developing countries; on the whole, they were nonwhite, nonindustrialized, and located in the southern half of the globe
The Bretton Woods Conference
happened in July 1944; Meeting of Western allies to establish a postwar international economic order to avoid crises like the one that spawned World War II. Led to the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, designed to regulate currency levels and provide aid to underdeveloped countries.
The World Bank
set up in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference to provide loans for the development of third world countries
The International Monetary Fund
set up in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference to stabilize the value of currencies and provide a predictable environment for trade
The Truman-Molotov encounter
meeting between US President Truman and Soviet commissar V.M. Molotov; Truman's "tough method" and firm beliefs essentially spur the Cold War
Atomic diplomacy
Soviet belief that the United States was maintaining a nuclear monopoly to scare the Soviets into diplomatic concessions
The Baruch Plan
primarily a propaganda ploy; proposal made by Bernard Baruch to have the US abandon its nuclear monopoly if the world's fissionable materials were overseen by an international agency; spurs nuclear arms race between US and Soviets (who thought that the plan required them to shut down their nuclear bomb development and allowed US continuation of production)
George F. Kennan
He was a young U.S. diplomat. and responsible for developing the policy of "containment"
The long telegram
telegram sent by US ambassador to the USSR that stated that Soviet nationalism had grown so strong that only "toughness" could be used on the Soviets; spurred US nationalism and adoption of the Truman "tough method"
Churchill's Iron Curtain speech
A term made famous by Winston Churchill about Cold War tensions. It described the political and idealogical boundaries that divided Europe after WWII.
United Nations Security Council
The Security Council is the United Nations' most powerful body. It has "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security." Five powerful countries sit as "permanent members" along with ten other member states, elected for two-year terms.
Henry A. Wallace
A former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy with the Soviets. He caused the Democratic party to split even more during the election season.
The Greek civil war
armed rebellion in Greece by a group of communists; one of the main focuses of the Truman Doctrine
The Truman Doctrine
A doctrine developed by Truman in accordance with the containment policy that promised economic aid to those fighting communists. The doctrine would later drag the U.S into more conflicts such as Vietnam and Korea.
the Mr. X article
article in Foreign Affairs (magazine) written by George Kennan promoting a "policy of firm containment, designed to confront the Russians with unalterable counterforce at every point where they show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world"
the containment doctrine
A foreign policy developed by diplomat George Kennan that claimed that the only way to stop Russia's expansionist ways was to contain it. It was the basis of US foreign policy after WWII designed to stop the spread of communism. America's strategy against the Soviet Union based on ideas of George Kennan. The doctrine declared that the Soviet Union and communism were inherently expansionist and had to be stopped from spreading through both military and political pressure. Containment guided American foreign policy throughout most of the Cold War.
Walter Lippmann
American journalist who opposed the containment doctrine, stating that it would spread US resources thin; instead, promoted emphasis on diplomacy
the Marshall Plan
A U.S developed plan designed to revive the economies of Europe after the war. It proved vital for the Europeans since it allowed them to rejuvenate their economies.
the National Security Act
1947; As a response to the threat of the Soviets, in order to improve the defense of America. The act created the Department of Defense and the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency.
National Security Council
AKA the NSC; a group of high-level officials who advised the president on security matters
Central Intelligence Agency
AKA the CIA; conducted spy operations and information gathering overseas
the Berlin blockade and airlift
AKA the First Berlin Crisis; The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift, a year-long mission of flying food and supplies to blockaded West Berliners, whom the Soviet Union cut off from access to the West in the first major crisis of the Cold War
Federal Republic of Germany
AKA "West Germany"; in June 1948; French, British, and Americans agreed to fuse their German zones
German Democratic Republic
AKA "East Germany"; after the Soviets cautiously lifted the blockade in May 1949 and created their half of Germany
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
AKA NATO; organization formed by a 1949 treaty signed by 12 nations; the nations agreed that an attack on any one of them would be seen as an attack on all of them; essentially, a massive defensive alliance; controversial due to US tendancy to avoid military alliances
the hydrogen bomb
powerful weapon designed by the United States; productio initialized by Truman after the Soviets successfully created an atomic bomb and US nuclear monopoly was destroyed; led to increased military budget/focus on military
NSC-68
National Security Council recommendation to quadruple defense spending and rapidly expand peace-time armed forces to address Cold War tensions. It reflected a new militarization of American foreign policy but the huge costs of rearmament were not expected to interfere with what seemed like the limitless possibilities of postwar prosperity.
Douglas MacArthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Japanese reconstruction
the Americanization of Japan through censorship and media propaganda; restoration of Japanese sovereignty and the Mutual Security Treaty follow
Jiang Jieshi
Leader of Chinese Nationalists, also known as Chang kai-shek. He was defeated by Mao Zedong's communist revolutionaries in 1949 and was forced to flee to the isalnd of Tawiwan, where, with the support of the United States, he became president of the Republic of China; unreliable and corrupt, yet Truman backs him to the end due to him being the only alternative to Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Chinese Communist leader; suspected to have ties with the Soviet Union, causing US to shun him; took control of China in September 1949
People's Republic of China
communist government in China installed by Mao Zedong in 1949; scared the crap out of anti-communist Americans
Formosa
the island to which Jiang Jieshi fled after being defeated Mao Zedong; now called Taiwan
the China lobby
a vocal group of Republicans who criticized Truman with the popular slogan, "Who lost China?"
Indochina
the former name of a region of southeast Asia, which dates from the period when it was a colony of France under the full name of Democratic of Indochina; includes Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
North Korea
the Republic of Korea
South Korea
Kim Il Sung
North Korea's communist leader
Syngman Rhee
South Korea's president
the 38th parallel
official dividing line between North and South Korea
the Korean War
June 25, 1950-July 27, 1953; a war between the Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), supported by the People's Republic of China
the Pusan perimeter
tip of the Korean peninsula where the South Koreans were stuck before MacArthur came
the Inchon landing
The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops.
the Korean armistice
signed in July 1953; Stalin's death and new leaders in Moscow and Washington helped ease tensions; border between the Koreas was set near the 38th parallel (the prewar boundary) and a demilitarized zone was created between the two Koreas
the ANZUS Treaty
a 1951 security alliance to protect against Communist China, Soviet Power, the war in Korea and Asia/Pacific decolonization; a mutual defense agreement between Australia, New Zealand, and the US (thus the name)
John Foster Dulles
He was Secretary of State during the 1950s. He was responsible for developing the policy of Massive Retaliation.
Liberation, massive retaliation and deterrence
countries had to be freed from communist reign; Eisenhower said the new policy "simply means the ability to blow hell out of them in a hurry if they start anything"; this would hopefully make the last item, a prevention of hostile Soviet behavior
The New Look military
describes the shift in foreign policy from containment to massive retaliation; emphasis on airpower and and nuclear weaponry
Brinkmanship
not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the nation to the brink of war
Domino theory
small, weak, neighboring nations would fall to communism like a row of dominoes if they were not propped up by the US
Allen Dulles
head of the CIA; brother of the secretary of state
The MKULTRA program
conducted experiments on unsuspecting Americans to determine the potency of "mind control" drugs
ICBM
intercontinental ballistic missile; first one fired in 1957
Sputnik
was a Russian satellite sent up to space in 1957. The breakthrough of the Soviets destroyed the self-confidence of Americans and initiated the Space Race.
NASA
created in 1958 to foster future technological advancement; National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The People-to-People Campaign
launched in 1956; used ordinary people and nongovernmental organizations to enhance the image of the United States
The kitchen debate
was a famous discussion between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev. It signaled that the U.S acknowledged their setback in technology since Nixon focused on technological luxuries.
Nikita Krushchev
was the Soviet Premier from 1953-1964. He dealt with the U.S during the 1950s and early 1960s.
The Hungarian uprising
in 1956, a new Hungarian government announced that they would be leaving the Warsaw Pact; Soviets retaliated by coming in and destroying anti-Soviet demonstrators
The Berlin crisis of 1958
AKA the Second Berlin Crisis; Kruschchev offered to give East Germany self-government, but only if the US stopped talks of reunification; US refused, so Kruschchev had to back down with the promise of pressing the issue again
The Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
The U-2 incident
a U-2 spy plane carrying lots of cameras went down in Moscow; they put it on display, along with the CIA pilot, and accused the US of spying
The Jinmen-Mazu crisis
Communist China's guns bombarded the islands in 1954; Eisenhower decided to defend the outpost
The Formosa Resolution
1955; Authorized president to use force to defend Taiwan from PRC who was threatening invasion. Eisenhower threatened nukes.
Third World neutralism
Secretary of State Dulles declared it a step on the road to communism; he and Eisenhower insisted that ever nation should take a side in the life-and-death Cold War struggle
The Green Revolution
a dramatic increase in agricultural production; ie, by use of hybrid seeds
The US Information Agency propaganda campaigns
AKA USIA; founded in 1953; used films, radio broadcasts, the magazine "Free World", exhibitions, exchange programs, and libraries to trumpet the theme of "People's Capitalism"
People's Capitalism
religious freedom, well-paid workers, political democracy
Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán
leftists who was elected president of Guatemala in 1951; he was overthrown in mid-1954 for supposedly being a communist
Fidel Castro
the communist leader of Cuba after the overthrow of Batista; befriended Khrushchev which made the Cuban situation much more complex since Khrushchev promised to help if they were attacked
Fulgencio Batista
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
Shah of Iran
granted American oil companies 40% interest in a new petroleum consortium in return for CIA help in overthrowing his rival in 1953
Mohammed Mossadegh
rival of the Shah of Iran; was overthrown by the CIA in 1953
Gamal Abdul Nasser
Pursued policy of non-alignment, claim neutrality but use cold war stand-off to advantage. Soviets aided Egypt in building Aswan High Dam. US withdraw aid. Nasser nationalized Suez Canal in 1956.
the Suez crisis
Abdul Gamal Nasser, nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and was attacked by British, French and Israeli forces. The U.S. intervened on behalf of Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as world powers.
the Eisenhower Doctrine
US will use armed forces, upon request, to respond to actual or imminent agression to US
*1st use in Lebanon, troops stabilize Lebanese Civil War
(Meant to deter Soviet aggression in Middle East & reward those countries who opposed communism)
Dienbienphu
In 1946, war broke out between communist insurgents in North Vietnam, called the Viet Minh, and the French Colonial government. In the spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. The defeat was so disastrous for the French that they decided to withdraw from Vietnam.
the 1954 Geneva Accords
signed by France and Ho's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1954; created the 17th parallel, giving the northern half to Ho and the southern half to Bao Dai
the 17th parallel
meant to serve as a military truce line, not a boundary line; declared at the Geneva Accords of 1954
Bao Dai
appointed by the French to serve as the leader of Vietnam; at the Geneva Accords of 1954, his government was confined to the southern half of Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem
a Catholic in a Buddhist nation; highly anticommunist, but very little mass support; staged an election, which he won by 200K more votes than there were people
The Republic of Vietnam
Ho's government in the northern half of Vietnam
The National Liberation Front
AKA the Vietcong; name given to the guerilla fighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were regular troops.
The national security state
had at its heart the Department of Defense; there was also the CIA, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and many more government bodies; tried to find the best means to combat real and potential threats from foreign governments