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Biology Chapter 19 and 20.1
Terms in this set (42)
From the _____, paleontologists learn about the structure of ancient organism, their environment, and the ways in which they lived.
_____ allows paleontologists to determine whether a fossil is older or younger than other fossils.
proportion of radioactive to stable isotopes
Radiometric dating uses the _____ to calculate the age of a sample.
The geologic time scale is based on both relative and absolute dating. The major divisions of the geologic time scale are _____, _____, and _____.
Building mountains, opening coastlines, changing climates, and geological forces have _____ of living organisms repeatedly throughout Earth history.
The actions of _____ over time have changed conditions in the land, water, and atmosphere of planet Earth.
eventually become extinct
If the rate of speciation in a clade is equal to or greater than the rate of extinction, the clade will continue to exist. If the rate of extinction in a clade is greater than the rate of speciation, the clade will _____.
Evidence shows that _____ has often proceeded at different rates for different organisms at different times over the long history of life on Earth.
Two important patterns of macroevolution are adaptive _____ and _____.
The relationship between two coevolving organisms often becomes so specific that neither organism can survive without the other. Thus, an _____ in one organism is usually followed by a change in the other organism.
Earth's early atmosphere contained little or no oxygen. It was principally composed of:
b. _____, and
c. _____, with lesser amounts of
e. _____, and
Miller and Urey's experiment suggested how mixtures of the _____ necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds on a primitive Earth.
DNA directed protein synthesis
The "RNA world" hypothesis proposes that RNA existed by itself before DNA. From this simple RNA-based system, several steps could have led to _____.
The _____ proposes that a symbiotic relationship evolved over time, between primitive eukaryotic cells and the prokaryotic cells within them.
The development of sexual reproduction sped up _____ because sexual reproduction increases genetic variation.
_____ can reproduce only by infecting infected cells.
Inside living cells, viruses use their _____ to make multiple copies of themselves. Some viruses replicated immediately, while others initially persist in an inactive state within the host.
_____: term used to refer to a species that has died out and has no living members.
_____: scientist who studies fossils.
_____: method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with that fossils in other rock.
_____: distinctive fossil that is used to compare the relative ages of fossils.
_____: method for determining the age of a sample form the amount of a radioactive isotope to the nonradioactive isotope of the same element in a sample.
_____: length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.
Geologic time scale
_____: timeline used to represent Earth's history.
_____: major division of geologic time; usually divided into two or more periods.
_____: division of geologic time into which eras are subdivided.
_____: geologic processes, such as continental drift, volcanoes, and earthquakes, resulting from plate movement
_____: changes in anatomy, phylogeny, ecology, and behavior that take place in clades larger than a single species.
_____: extinction caused by slow and steady process of natural selection.
_____: event during which many species become extinct during a relatively short period of time.
_____: the evolution of a species by gradual accumulation of small genetic changes over long periods of time.
_____: pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are inturupted by brief periods of more rapid change
_____: process by which a single species or a small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways.
_____: process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments.
_____: theory that proposes that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiotic relationship among several different prokaryotic cells.
_____: particle made of proteins, nucleic acids, and sometimes lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells.
_____: protein coat surrounding a virus
_____: kind of virus that infects bacteria
_____: type of infection in which a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst
_____: type of infection in which a virus embeds its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and is replicated along with the host cell's DNA
___: bacteriophage DNA that is embedded in the bacterial host's DNA
_____: RNA virus that contains RNA as its genetic information.
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