Which of the following conclusions would sociologists most likely agree upon when discussing the importance of the sociological perspective?
It opens a window to unfamiliar worlds and offers a fresh look at familiar worlds.
The event that most inspired Auguste Comte to pose the question, "What holds society together?" and begin developing sociology as a science was the ________.
Based on the theories formulated by Karl Marx, what was the ultimate goal of the proletariat?
The proletariat sought to develop a classless society free of exploitation.
What sociological phrase is used to describe "opening a window onto unfamiliar worlds and offering a fresh look at familiar worlds?"
The sociological perspective
Frank is examining the broad stream of events that have occurred over the past 50 years, along with the specific experiences of his own life. By doing so, what sociological process has Frank undertaken?
The sociological imagination
What is the underlying principle of symbolic interactionism?
It explains how one's behavior depends on the way they define themselves and others.
Many African Americans feel the flag of the Confederate States of America, "the stars and bars," is a sign of racial hatred. States' rights advocates view the same flag as "heritage, not hatred." Such a difference of opinion over the same material object is an illustration of which sociological perspective?
Viewing society as composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources is the underlying premise in ________.
According to Robert Merton, the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions that help a social system to be more efficient are ________.
Which of the following statements is least accurate when addressing feminist theory?
Conflict between men and women is a relatively new phenomenon brought about by equal rights legislation.
Jennie is studying how the President's new economic policies are affecting employment and unemployment rates, homelessness, and the amount of money people save. In view of this, Jennie is primarily utilizing which sociological approach?
The two sociological perspectives that focus on the broader picture, or the macrosociological approach, are ________.
conflict theory and functionalism
What is the primary reason for the differences people have in behavior and attitude?
location in the social structure
The sociological focus of microsociology places its emphasis on ________.
Cordell Walker is a Texas Ranger, a husband, a father, a good friend to many, and a martial artist. Together, these titles comprise what sociologists would call Walker's ________.
Leo is a college graduate, cello teacher, and a member of Who's Who Among Students in American Colleges and Universities. This would be an example of ________.
his achieved statuses
What is the primary difference between an ascribed status and an achieved status?
Ascribed statuses are involuntary while achieved statuses are voluntary.
According to Durkheim, the shared consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks is called ________.
The degree to which members of a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds is what Durkheim referred to as ________.
A[n] ________ designates social position while a[n] ________ designates socially expected behavior.
What is the average net difference in the world population each hour?
The world population increases by over 9,000 people.
What impact did the introduction of the potato have on the demography of Europe?
Fertility increased and the death rate dropped
Which of the following positions would an Anti-Malthusian most likely embrace?
The world's population is undergoing a three-stage growth cycle.
What two variables does a population pyramid usually display?
Age and sex of the population
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, why do women in poor nations bear a large number of children?
Large families are rewarded socially and economically.
Which of the following conditions would conflict theorists suggest as being the result of a declining standard of living in a given society?
What term do demographers use to describe the number of children women are capable of bearing?
Of the following, which is the primary factor affecting the growth rate of most countries today?
The rate of industrialization in a country.
What was the key factor in the development of cities, beginning in approximately 3500 BC?
more efficient agricultural practices
Which invention from the Industrial Revolution was responsible for the mass population shift into cities and the subsequent rise of cities' influence on society?
The steam engine
Jim and Milly have decided to buy and restore an older house in a deteriorated urban neighborhood. Jim and Milly will then live in their renovated home. They are part of a movement referred to as ________.
Sociologist Robert Park used the term ________ to describe the ways in which people adapt to the environment.
What term do sociologists use to refer to a place that people identify as their residence and that also conveys a sense of belonging and that others care what happens to them?
The diffusion of responsibility can best be defined by which of the following?
The more bystanders there are, the less likely people are to help.
According to sociologist William Julius Wilson, what is the single most influential event in the transformation of inner cities into ghettos?
The plow is to the second social revolution as the _____is to the third social revolution.
invention of the steam engine
What do sociologists call the sweeping changes in society ushered in by the Industrial Revolution, including the rise of capitalism, the accumulation of large surpluses, and the development of distinct social classes?
What was the last nation to be accepted into the Group of 7, which transformed it into the Group of 8?
What serious threat to global divisions created by the Group of Eight has required military action and other forms of diplomacy?
the resurgence of ethnic conflicts worldwide
During cultural lag, what is the most likely course of events?
Technology will change first but nonmaterial culture will lag behind the technology.
What aspect of new technology is of the most interest to sociologists?
how technology changes people's way of life and reshapes a society
When missionaries introduced steel axes to the Aborigines of Australia, it upset their entire society. What do sociologists call the spreading of an invention, such as the ax, from one society to another?
What term applies to a social movement that seeks only to change some specific behavior of individuals, such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union's effort to ban the consumption of alcoholic beverages?
Alterative social movement
Sociologist Mayer Zald suggests that during some periods of time there are very few social movements in a society and that, at other times, a wave of social movements will emerge. What did Zald suggest is the reason for the fluctuating number of social movements?
Social movements increase when the society experiences a cultural crisis.
Selene is a member of an environmentalist group that wants to clean up the land and rivers and improve air quality. Selene would be considered a member of a[n] ________ social movement.
What is the purpose of propaganda, as the term is applied to social movements, political campaigns, and by governments today?
Propaganda is one-sided and distorts reality in favor of who controls it.
According to sociologists, social movements go through stages as they grow and mature. What is the crucial stage that enables social movements to become more stable and continue?
the resource mobilization stage
What condition is created by the burning of fossil fuels, allowing sunlight to enter the earth's atmosphere freely, but also inhibiting the release of heat?
the greenhouse effect
According to the text, there is no energy shortage now nor will there ever be as fossil fuels are not the only source of energy available. How would a conflict theorist explain the fact that these abundant alternative energy sources are not used?
The use of these alternative fuels presents a threat to the multinational oil companies.
What is the goal of environmental sociology?
to understand the interrelationship between societies and the environment
Which of the following phrases is least descriptive of or related to the concept of culture?
There is one basic culture that acts as a standard to determine the appropriateness of values, norms, and behaviors.
What are sociologists referring to when they address the culture within us?
the learned and shared ways of believing and doing that are a part of our behavior
Which set of concepts best illustrates material culture?
Jewelry, art, and hairstyles
What sociological concept explains why natives in remote South American jungles can be found using metal cooking pots, and American can be found eating Chinese food in Chicago?
In the opening passage, the author discusses how trying to be polite while purchasing a ticket didn't work, and how he had to resort to forceful and aggressive tactics in order to receive service. In this case, the author's behavior can best be described by which statement?
The situation illustrates the differences in nonmaterial culture by Americans and Moroccans.
What term refers to how language determines ones consciousness and perceptions of objects and events?
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Jamaican women prefer portly men with rounded mid-sections while American women prefer men who have triangular physiques, big shoulders, and thin waistlines. This difference in what is socially desirable or undesirable is an example of differences in ________.
The expectations, or rules of behavior, that develop out of values are referred to by sociologists as ________.
Mark and Sally went walking in the park. Both of them were wearing nothing on the upper half of their bodies. Mark would be violating a ________, Sally would be violating a ________.
When a member of society is tried, judged, and convicted of an act that results in their being expelled from that society for life, which of the following descriptions most likely applies to that act?
Their behavior can be classified as taboo.
When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society, the group would be considered a[n] ________.
What term do sociologists use to describe the norms and values that people actually follow, as opposed to those that they would follow if they lived in a perfect world?
What term best describes the emerging technologies that have a significant impact on social life, such as the emergence of computers, satellites, and the electronic media?
A group's nonmaterial culture is primarily shaped by ________, because, as this aspect of society changes, so do the ways people think and relate to one another.
and Manhattan are examples of ________.
In the "nature v. nurture" controversy, which of the following terms least applies to nurture?
What conclusion can be drawn from a case study of Oskar and Jack, the two identical twins who were raised separately?
One's orientation to life is largely the result of environment.
Which of the following qualities least qualifies as a part of one's social environment?
His/her intellectual capability
According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self-concept?
Our self-concept develops from interaction with others.
Which statement is least true of role-taking behavior as developed by George Herbert Mead?
Mead used the term "significant other" to indicate the self as subject.
According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?
Through play and social interaction
Tony is five years of age. He loves to dress up like the Lone Ranger and pretend to help people in need. According to Mead's theory, what stage best describes Tony's behavior?
The play stage
The basic premise of Piaget's model of development, which has remained unchanged, is that:
children begin with the concrete and move to the abstract.
Psychologists Susan Goldberg and Michael Lewis observed the interactions of mothers and children to determine if the children were socialized differently, depending on the child's sex. What was the conclusion they reached following their research?
Mothers unconsciously rewarded daughters for being dependent.
Connie is six years of age. She can count to 100, but she is not sure what the numbers actually mean. According to Piaget, in what stage is Connie functioning?
What are the stages that people pass through from birth to death that include childhood, adolescence, transitional adulthood, the middle years, and the older years?
The life course
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?
a mental hospital
What is the single best reason why children of more affluent neighborhoods are supervised more by neighbors and other community members than children from poor neighborhoods?
More affluent neighborhoods have less transition and know the children better.
What did the research of Kohn and Schooler reveal as being the reason for the difference in the goals of working class parents and middle class parents in rearing their children?
The degree of individual freedom the parents had on their jobs was the primary factor.
Which of the following media least qualifies as being a form of mass media?
Sociologically, which of the following least qualifies as a group?
All African American women attending colleges and universities in the United States.
A group of strangers waiting for a bus at the corner of Poplar and Main Streets is an example of a[n] ________.
Guy is a NASA engineer who is working on proposals for the first manned mission to Mars. Sociologically, what is NASA in relationship to Guy's life?
It is a secondary group because NASA serves as Guy's employer, and space travel is his vocational interest.
Which sociologist coined the term, the iron law of oligarchy?
What conclusion can be drawn from Milgram's experiment involving the "small world Phenomenon"?
Society is unconsciously linked together by mutual acquaintances.
When Judith Kleinfeld replicated Milgram's experiment on small group phenomenon, what did she discover?
Milgram's experiment was not representative of average people.
Carol communicates periodically with people on the Internet who are avid Pittsburgh Steeler fans. She has just spent several hours talking to Joann, Judy, Rhiannon, and Scott about "Big Ben's" motorcycle accident. Together, Carol and her Internet contacts comprise ________.
an electronic community
According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, what purpose does an organization's "hidden values" serve?
They are self-fulfilling prophecies that affect people's corporate careers.
What conclusion did Georg Simmel reach with respect to the size of a group?
As groups grow smaller, they become less stable.
Based on the research of Darley and Latene, what conclusion did they reach after observing the influence of group size on attitudes and behavior?
There is a diffusion of responsibility as groups increase in size.
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy brokered options on how to address the problem with selected national leaders. After this group reached a consensus, the President made the final decision for a naval quarantine of Cuba. This scenario is an example of ________ leadership.
The type of leadership style that will most likely result in a high degree of internal solidarity among employees is the ________ style.
What conclusion can be drawn from Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity?
Because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
When members of a group begin to narrow their thoughts and feel that there is only one correct answer to a situation, and when suggesting an alternative is seen as being disloyal to the group, group members are experiencing a phenomenon that sociologists call _________.
In the wake of the World Trade Center attack by terrorists, government officials were quick to endorse measures that contradicted several rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Opposition to these measures was seen by many as subversive. This is an example of ________.
How does the manner in which sociologists apply the term deviant differ from the manner in which members of the general public apply the term?
Sociologists use the term deviance nonjudgmentally; members of the general public respond to it negatively.
The relativity of deviance is best explained by the ________ perspective.
Which of the following statements regarding deviance is least true?
Deviance is a universal term when applied within the same society.
Based on control theory, when are inner controls more effective?
When people have strong attachments, commitments, and involvements with society
A group's customary social arrangements that provide stability to life are referred to as ________.
Every human group develops a system of formal and informal social controls to enforce norms and discourage deviance. They do so because deviance ________.
undermines predictability, a necessity for social life
In Nebraska, a man arranged for the marriage of his 13- and 14-year-old daughters to two 34- and 28-year-old Iraqi men who were also immigrants. Based upon this traditional and time-honored Islamic practice, what were the reactions of the citizens of Nebraska and Muslims in the Middle East?
The Muslims were unphased by the event while the Nebraska citizens considered it as rape.
The major difference between sociological and psychological theories used to explain deviance is that ________.
sociological explanations focus on factors outside the individual, and psychological explanations address conditions within the individual
Based on Control Theory, when are inner controls more effective?
when we have strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with society
Foster has developed an "excess of definitions" that support his rationalization for setting up an illegal "chop shop" to process stolen cars for their parts. He has weighed all the reasons why he shouldn't open the shop, as well as the reasons he should. Foster's decision to enter a life of crime can best be explained by which theory of deviance?
The Theory of Differential Association
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.
.What is the major difference between white-collar crime and street crime?
White-collar crime is an act committed in the course of a legitimate occupation, but street crime is not
Which sociological perspective is most closely aligned with a theorist that sees the law as an instrument of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in their privileged positions?
The passage of "three strikes and you're out" laws has, in some cases, resulted in mandatory life imprisonment sentences for relatively minor offenses. Such outcomes illustrate what functional theorists describe as ________.
What is the defining quality of hate crimes?
They are crimes motivated by bias against someone's ascribed status.
Traditionally, what were the three factors on which slavery was based?
War, debt, and crime
Which of the following is the least important variable in determining one's place in the social stratification system?
What is the major characteristic of the class system?
A class system has fluid boundaries that permit movement up and down the class ladder.
What did Marx believe was the primary factor that distinguished between the different classes under industrial capitalism?
relationship to the means of production
Which statement is not an example of Karl Marx's predictions and beliefs about social class?
When workers revolt, they will be supported by the police and military who are also in the working class.
In the three world model, First World nations usually have a ________ economy while Second World nations have a ________ economy.
________ Nations contain 16 percent of the world's population, 31 percent of the world's land, and are concentrated in the northern hemisphere.
In democracies, what are the two methods that are used by the ruling elite to control information?
Technology and the selective release of information
What are the two basic reasons that poor nations remain at the bottom of the world stratification order?
the existence of neocolonialism and the influence of multinational corporations
How has the introduction of new technologies affected global domination and stratification?
New technologies benefit the Industrializing and Least Industrialized Nations at a far greater degree than the Most Industrialized Nations.
Which statement is most accurate regarding the changes in income distribution in the United States since 1970?
The rich have grown richer and the poor have grown poorer.
When used by sociologists, what is meant by the term wealth?
Wealth is the value of someone's property minus that person's debt.
A profile of their personal qualities would reveal that most U.S. presidents come from a group of _______.
millionaire white men from old money families
Bruce, a US Senator, owns about 3,000 acres of prime farmland, is one of the wealthiest men in the county, and enjoys a great deal of prestige in his community. In view of this, how would sociologists describe Bruce as it pertains to social class?
Bruce is status consistent because of his high ranking in the three dimensions.
Jocko is a drug dealer who makes well over a million dollars a year. He lives in a magnificent home and has a "squad" of other dealers and gang members who support and protect him. In view of this, which of the following is the best description of Jocko based on middle class standards?
Jocko is status inconsistent because his prestige score as a drug dealer is not consistent with his rank in property and power.
Phil, a janitor for an expensive apartment-house complex in Chicago, is a union member who makes more money than many of the tenants in the building he maintains. Lenski would note that Phil's high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of ________.
Based on the model of Kahl and Gilbert, which social class is most shaped by education?
upper middle class
Based on the author's account of the relationship between physical health and social class, which of the following statements would be most accurate?
There is a positive relationship between social class and physical health.
Which statement is least true of children in poverty?
There are more African American children in poverty than white children.
Which group of theorists believe the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain an army of reserve workers?
From a sociological perspective, which of the following statements best summarizes the meaning of race?
The definition of race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
What are the two major myths of race?
Certain races are superior to others, and pure races exist.
The slaughtering of the Tutsis by the Hutus in Rwanda in 1994 and the massacre of Muslims at the hands of the Serbs in Bosnia are examples of ________.
Mickey takes great pride in being Irish. He wears a button that says "Kiss Me...Im Irish," flies the Irish flag outside his home, dresses in green quite often, and participates in the St. Patrick's Day parade every year. What is Mickey doing that is related to race and ethnicity?
Mickey is involved in ethnic work.
Prejudice describes ________ , while discrimination describes ________.
People who are African American and Hispanic are often turned down for loans, even though their credit histories are similar to white applicants with similar credit histories. Sociologists refer to this as an example of ________.
What conclusion did the Sherifs reach following their experiment in which boys at a summer camp were assigned different cabins that competed against each other in sports and for status?
Prejudice is functional, as it creates in-group solidarity.
When a ruling power makes life so unbearable for a minority group that they choose to leave "voluntarily" is known as _____________.
indirect population transfer
What term refers to the way in which a country's dominant group exploits the minority groups within the same country for its economic advantage?
What was the major difference between the half-million Cubans who fled Castro's rise to power in 1959 and the 100,000 boat people who fled Cuba in 1980?
The 1980 group was less educated and lower-class.
Which of the following is the best example of gender stratification?
Women are not permitted to vote, own property, or testify in court in some societies.
Why are women classified as a minority group?
Women are discriminated against based on physical or cultural characteristics.
The majority of students graduating with a degree in library science are women. Research has shown that this sex-typing of majors is primarily due to ________.
Leticia has worked for 20 years in the public relations department of a large firm and has been the vice-president for the past ten years. It is unlikely she will ever be promoted to the top executive position in her firm even though she has directed several successful projects and is quite capable. Her lack of promotion is an illustration of ________.
the "glass ceiling"
For any solution to be effective in reducing violence against women in the United States, what is the first hurdle that must be overcome?
Any connections between violence and masculinity must be broken.
What is the relationship between the level of industrialization and the level of traditional authority?
As the level of industrialization increases, the level of traditional authority decreases.
Which of the following statements is least accurate regarding the Democrats and Republicans?
Deeply committed Republicans favor legislation to control wages, working conditions, and competition.
Maximillian is disenchanted with the American political system. He feels the "one man one vote" philosophy is a facade and that his vote means virtually nothing and will just bring "more of the same." Based on this information, diagnose Maximillian's condition.
Maximillian is suffering from voter apathy.
Sociologist William Domhoff uses the term ________ to refer to what C. Wright Mills calls the power elite.
Although there is a market for a variety of products including explosives, strong pesticides, and poisons, they cannot be sold to the general public. Such restrictions on what can be manufactured and sold is a feature of ________ capitalism.
An economic system designed to eliminate competition by selling goods at predetermined prices, regardless of the demand for the product or the cost to make it, is called _________.
What is the primary criticism leveled against socialism?
The system does not respect individual rights.
What is the primary criticism leveled against capitalism?
It leads to severe social inequalities.
What is the primary reason many employers rely on diplomas and degrees as sorting devices to choose employees?
Employers do not know potential employees.
In the Least Industrialized Nations, who is most likely to participate in a formal education program beyond the first couple of grades?
primarily the wealthy because of the relatively high cost of education in these nations
According to functionalists, why is social placement or tracking of students beneficial to society?
It ensures that the more capable people fill positions requiring higher intellectual levels.
In a capitalist economy, who or what determines the price of a commodity?
Symbols such as the crucifix, the Star of David, or the crescent moon and star provide a number of functions for the members of the respective religions they represent. Which of the following statements is least significant regarding these symbols?
Symbols are universally understood messages in all cultures.
Religion has often been used to justify denying homosexuals certain rights in the United States. What would conflict theorists argue that this illustrates about religion?
Religion is used to legitimate social inequality.
What is the term used to describe the shifting of focus from spiritual matters to the affairs of this world?
the secularization of religion
Which perspective is most aligned with the belief in family-controlled economic production, socialization of children, care of the sick and aged, and reproduction?
The functionalist perspective
When Frank was only a year old, he was "unofficially" adopted by another family on the block when his parents were killed in an automobile accident. Frank lived with this family until he enlisted in the military at age 19. How would sociologists classify the adopting family that Frank lived with for 18 years?
It was Frank's family of orientation.
Anthony and Cathy Jones have been married for twenty-nine years. They have always had a joint bank account, discussed big expenditures before making them, and shared household duties. This Jones family is an example of a[n] ________ family.
Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a norm necessary for proper family development?
It facilitates the socialization of children, and it avoids role confusion.
In India, about 95 percent of the marriages are arranged by the parents; in the United States, most marriages are based on individual choice. Which statement best explains these differences in marriage practices?
A society's marriage practices match societal values and patterns of stratification.
Which statement most accurately describes how parents of different social classes rear their children?
Middle class parents think their children need significant nurturing.
What are "boomerang children"?
children who strike out on their own but find the cost and responsibility too great and return home
Which of the following variables has the strongest influence on the variations found in American family life?
social class and culture
What is the primary source of strain in the typical one-parent family?
Zachary's parents were divorced three years ago. During the first year after the divorce, Zachary's father visited him every week. Then Zachary's father remarried and fathered another child. Now he rarely visits Zachary. This situation is an example of ________.
Which statement is least true of divorce?
The person who initiates the divorce is more likely to suffer from guilt and anxiety over it.
In her research on abused women, Ann Goetting found common qualities among the women who were able to make the break from an abusive mate. Of the following, which factor was not one of the four Goetting found these women shared?
They were traditionalists, holding on to traditional middle class values.
What conclusion did Murray Strauss come to based on his research on battering in marital relationships?
Husbands and wives are about equally likely to attack one another.
Jane is getting married in the spring and is worried that her chances of getting divorced are extremely likely, given the high divorce rate in the U.S. On the other hand, what reason can Jane use to discount the statistics related to divorce?
Overall statistics on divorce have nothing to do with any one individual marriage.
Which sociological perspective implies that to have a good marriage, it is essential for people to perceive that a good marriage is possible and worth working toward achieving?