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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 8: Special Senses Vocabulary
Terms in this set (57)
Special Sense Receptors
Either large, complex sensory organs (eyes and ears) or localized clusters of receptors (taste buds and olfactory epithelium).
Modified sebaceous glands associated with the eyelid edges that produce an oily secretion that lubricates the eye.
Modified sweat glands that lie between the eyelashes
A delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers part of the outer surface of the eyeball. Ends at the edge of the cornea by fusing with the corneal epithelium. Secretes mucus, which helps to lubricate the eyeball and keep it moist.
Made up of the lacrimal gland and a number of ducts that drain the lacrimal secretions into the nasal cavity
Lacrimal Gland (not on quiz)
Located above the lateral end of each eye and continually release a dilute salt solution (tears) onto the anterior surface of the eyeball through several small ducts.
Lacrimal Secretions (not on quiz)
What comes from the lacrimal apparatus through the nasolacrimal duct. Contains tears, antibodies, and lysozyme (an enzyme that destroys bacteria). Cleanses and protects the eye surface as it moistens and lubricates it. When it increases, a bunch, you cry. Increases when eyes are irritated (by foreign objects or chemicals) or during emotional upset.
Where tears end up, which empties into the nasal cavity.
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
There are six of these things that are attached to the outer surface of each eye. These things produce gross eye movements and make it possible for eyes to follow a moving object.
A thick, white connective tissue. The white of the eye. Central portion is modified so that it is crystal clear. Outermost tunic of the eyeball.
Transparent "window" of the sclera. Area through which light enters the eye. Well supplied with nerve endings (mostly pain fibers). Most exposed part of the eye and very vulnerable to damage. The only tissue in the body that can be transplanted from one person to another without any rejection. Has no blood vessels.
Middle coat of the eyeball. Blood-rich nutritive tunic. Contains a dark pigment that prevents light from scattering inside the eye. Modified anteriorly to form two smooth muscle structures
What the lens is attached to. One of the two smooth muscle structures that extends from the choroid.
Attached to the ciliary body.
Attached to the ciliary body. Pigmented. Formed by circularly and radially arranged smooth muscle fibers. Regulates the amount of light entering the eye so that one can see as clearly as possible in the available light.
Rounded opening in the iris through which light passes. Constricts in bright light and close vision, dilates in distant vision and dim light
Innermost tunic, delicate and white. Only extends anteriorly to the ciliary body. Contains millions of photoreceptors cells (rods and cones)
Denser at the periphery of the retina
Allow us to see in gray tones in dim light and provide for peripheral vision
Composed of bundles of ganglion cell axons that carry impulses from the retina. The one place where photoreceptor cells are not distributed at the posterior aspect of the eyeball.
Also known as the optic disc. The spot where the optic nerve attaches to the eye. When something is in this portion of the eye's "view", the brain automatically fills in the spot by using the surrounding area to guess. This can be shown with the test with the circle and the x.
A tiny pit lateral to each blind spot that contains only cones. The area of sharpest vision (or greatest visual acuity). Anything we wish to view critically is focused on this spot.
Lack of all three cone types results in full, lack of some cone types results in partial. Lack of red-green receptors is most common.
The result of the hardening of the lens. Causes vision to become hazy and eventually causes blindness in the affected eye.
A clear watery fluid located in the segment of the eye anterior to the lens.
A gel-like substance located in the segment of the eye posterior to the lens.
A condition resulting from blockage of draining of the aqueous humor (which causes pressure buildup in the eye which compresses the retina and the optic nerve. Causes pain and can cause blindness.
The automatic adjustment in focal length of the lens of the eye
The crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
A binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. The greater the inward strain, the closer the object.
Constriction of pupils when the eyes are exposed to bright light. Occurs to keep the bright light from damaging delicate photoreceptors
A sensory receptor that responds to mechanical disturbances, such as shape changes (being squashed, bent, pulled, etc.). Mechanoreceptors include touch receptors in the skin, hair cells, in the ear, muscle spindles, and others.
shell shaped structure surrounding the auditory canal opening, directs sound waves into auditory canal
Found only in the external ear canal, where their secretion combines with sebum and dead epidermal cells to form earwax, or cerumen.
The eardrum. A structure that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound waves.
air passage between the middle ear and throat that equalizes air pressure on either side of the eardrum; also called the Eustachian tube
The three small bones found in the middle ear (the malleus, the incus, and the stapes) that help to amplify the vibrations from sound waves. The malleus is atached to the tympanic membrane and the stapes is attached to the oval window of the cochlea.
Bony (Osseous) Labyrinth
A maze of bony chambers in the inner ear that are located deep within the temporal bone and just behind the eye socket. Has three subdivisions: The cochlea, the vestibule, and the semicircular canals.
Fluid that fills the bony labyrinth of the inner ear. Rich in Na+
Fluid inside the membranous labyrinth (inside of cell) Rich in K+
Organ of Corti
Center part of the cochlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membranes
A membrane located above the basilar membrane; serves as a shelf against which the cilia of the auditory hair cells move
branch of the auditory nerve responsible for transmitting auditory info from the cochlea to the brain
The receptive organs of the inner ear that contribute to balance and perception of head movement
thick, gelatinous, glycoprotein layer located directly over hair cells of the macula in the saccule and uricle of the internal ear
nerve that conducts impulses related to maintaining balance to the brain
A specialized receptor located within the semicircular canals that detects head movements
Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Deafness that usually results from damage to the inner ear or to the auditory nerve
Nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell.
The nerve that carries smell impulses from the nose to the brain
Structures on the tongue containing groups of taste receptors, or taste buds
Cells that respond to chemicals dissolved in the saliva are epithelial cells; they are surrounded by supporting cells in taste bud
CN VII (mixed) motor control of muscles of facial expression and sublingual salivary glands
The nerve involved in swallowing, salivation, and taste
Contols roof of mouth, vocal cords, tone of voice, hoarseness may also indicate vagus nerve involvement
Defect in vision in advancing age involving loss of accommodation or recession of near vision; due to loss of elasticity of crystalline lens
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