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-create rhythm/meter, rhyme, and form
-define the speaker, characters, setting
-carry ideas and emotions
-exact/end up with an image
ex: cherry...hung in bloom
OR three score years and ten
-common, simple, even substandard English or slang
-unself-conscious in tone
-common/accecptable in a particular language
-how its understood by a culture
-creates colloquial tone
-takes on another meaning
-speech common to a particular region or group
-primary feature of local color writing
-used within a standard context slang can jar or shock
-phase out, transitional and always changing
-special terminology of a group
ex: athletes, dancers, army
-establishes authenticity on a subject
-reinforces the speakers reliability
-can be abtruse->hidden meaning
the concept of words (formal/informal) should fit the subject;also used to refer to manners, dress, behaviors
inversion of word order from the first part of a sentence in the last part.
-opposite of parallelism
words that trigger your imagination to recall and recombine images
-mental pictures or memories of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, touches that evoke feelings, emotions, responses
the mixing of sensory description
ex: "a green thought in a green shade"
"the room smelled yellow and orange"
"molten golden notes..."
repetition of the same word or phrase through a work/section in order to lend weight or emphasis
direct address to real or imagines listener who is NOT present in the poem
-used for dramatic effect
name of one thing is used to identify something closely associated with it
ex: hollywood=movie industry
the poet's attitude about the subject of the poem as expressed through the speaker and controlled by various elements of poetry
occurs when the reader understands something that the speaker or another character in the poem does not
revealed through the tone of poem that employs humor and irony to expose human follies and vices
shorthand way of referring to extensive ideas or attitudes that otherwise would be impossible to state in the brief format of a poem
-can convert a private moment into an idea of general significance
drawn from nature , Judeo-Christian religion, mythology, history, custom
-possesses a ready-made clearly agreed upon meaning
derive meaning from the context in which the author sets them; not widely or universally recognized outside of the individual works.
-unacknowledged brief quotations from other works
-references to historical events and any aspect of human culture
-can be a single word or phrase or the description of an entire situation
--presuppose a common bond of knowledge between the poet and the reader
--can build new ideas in a poem
-from the Italian for "little song"
-one of the most popular durable of the closed form
Italian /Petrarchan form
named for the medieval Italian poet Petrarch who created the form
-form= 2 quatrians & 2 tercets
-ryhme= abba abba / cdc cdc OR cde cde
adapted by shakespeare for fewer rhymes
-form=3 quatrians & 1 couplet
-ryhme= abab cdcd efef / gg
series of sonnets on a particular theme to a particualr individual
-shakesspeare's cycles included 126 to an unidentified man, 26 to a mysteripus dark lady, and 2 extra to complete the 154 sonnets
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