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73 terms

AP english- poetry unit

building blocks of poetry....maccherone
STUDY
PLAY
words
-create rhythm/meter, rhyme, and form
-define the speaker, characters, setting
-carry ideas and emotions
diction
-word choice
specific/concrete diction
-exact/end up with an image
ex: cherry...hung in bloom
OR three score years and ten
general/abstract diction
ex: infinite spaces and eternal truth
high/formal diction
-correct grammar
-complex words
-lofty tone
-greek/latin vocab
middle/neutral diction
-correct diction
-neither complex language nor slang/jargon
low/informal diction
-relaxed structure
-common, simple, even substandard English or slang
-unself-conscious in tone
Idiom (diction)
-common/accecptable in a particular language
-how its understood by a culture
-creates colloquial tone
-takes on another meaning
Dialect (diction)
-speech common to a particular region or group
-primary feature of local color writing
Slang (diction)
-informal/substandard vocabulary
-used within a standard context slang can jar or shock
-phase out, transitional and always changing
Jargon (diction)
-special terminology of a group
ex: athletes, dancers, army
-establishes authenticity on a subject
-reinforces the speakers reliability
-can be abtruse->hidden meaning
decorum
the concept of words (formal/informal) should fit the subject;also used to refer to manners, dress, behaviors
syntax
word order and sentence structure
parallelism
duplicating forms (parts of speech) in the word order
antithesis
contrasting situation or idea (often saved for the last line)
Chiasmus
inversion of word order from the first part of a sentence in the last part.
-opposite of parallelism
denotation
dictionary meaning of a word
connotation
emotional, physchological, social, and historical associations
imagery
words that trigger your imagination to recall and recombine images
-mental pictures or memories of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, touches that evoke feelings, emotions, responses
visual imagery
referring to sight
auditory imagery
referring to sound
olfactory imagery
referring to smell
gustatory imagery
referring to taste
tactile imagery
referring to touch/texture
kinetic imagery
referring to general motion
kinesthetic imagery
referring to muscle movement in humans and animals
synesthesia
the mixing of sensory description
ex: "a green thought in a green shade"
"the room smelled yellow and orange"
"molten golden notes..."
enjambment
"run-on" end of a line of poetry that carries over to the next line (no punctuation)
caesura
"end-stopped" pause within or at the end of a line of poetry
figures of speech
give poem depth and range
figurative language
-compresses thought
-promotes understanding
-shapes reader responses
metaphor
equates known objects or actions with something that is unknown or to be explained
smilie
show the similarity of the known to something unknown or to be explained
tenor
idea + attitude expressed in a metaphor/smilie by the speaker/author
vehicle
words of metaphor/smilie
paradox
apparent contraditction expressing some truth
"death, thou shalt die"
anaphora
repetition of the same word or phrase through a work/section in order to lend weight or emphasis
apostrophe
direct address to real or imagines listener who is NOT present in the poem
-used for dramatic effect
personification
attribution of human traits to abstractions or to non-human objects
synecdoche
part is used to stand for whole or whole is used to stand for part
"all hands on deck"
metonymy
name of one thing is used to identify something closely associated with it
ex: hollywood=movie industry
pun/paronmasia
word play based on multiple meanings of words with similar or identical sounds
hyperbole
-overstatement
-exaggeration for effect
"i was starved to death"
tone
the poet's attitude about the subject of the poem as expressed through the speaker and controlled by various elements of poetry
irony
powerful aspect of tine that allow reader not only to understand but also feel
verbal irony
the very words mean the opposite of what is expressed
situational irony
derived from the discrepancies between the ideal and the actual
dramatic irony
occurs when the reader understands something that the speaker or another character in the poem does not
satire
revealed through the tone of poem that employs humor and irony to expose human follies and vices
symbolism
shorthand way of referring to extensive ideas or attitudes that otherwise would be impossible to state in the brief format of a poem
-can convert a private moment into an idea of general significance
symbol
has meaning in itself but also understood to represent something else
cultural/universal symbols
drawn from nature , Judeo-Christian religion, mythology, history, custom
-possesses a ready-made clearly agreed upon meaning
contexual/private/authorial symbols
derive meaning from the context in which the author sets them; not widely or universally recognized outside of the individual works.
allusions
-unacknowledged brief quotations from other works
-references to historical events and any aspect of human culture
-can be a single word or phrase or the description of an entire situation
--enrich meaning
--presuppose a common bond of knowledge between the poet and the reader
--can build new ideas in a poem
idea
concept, principle, scheme, method, or plan
theme
idea, image, principle, or motif
motif
(like a melody in music) embodied, repeated, developed within a literary work
meaning
comprehensive reference to the ideas expressed in the poem
speaker
provides a starting point for understanding
character, setting, action
are dramatic elements of meaning
words-diction,denotation, connotation, syntax
are basic to a poem's total meaning and impact
imagery and figures of speech
provide an interpretive basis of ideas
tone
enables the reader to measure and balence ideas
prosody-meter/sound/rhyme
distinguishes and emphasizes ideas
structure and form
allow readers to follow the development of idea
symbol, allusion, and myth
broaden the scope of a poem's ideas
sonnet
-from the Italian for "little song"
-one of the most popular durable of the closed form
-14 lines
Italian /Petrarchan form
named for the medieval Italian poet Petrarch who created the form
-form= 2 quatrians & 2 tercets
-meter=iambic
-ryhme= abba abba / cdc cdc OR cde cde
Shakespearean/English form
adapted by shakespeare for fewer rhymes
-form=3 quatrians & 1 couplet
-meter=iambic
-ryhme= abab cdcd efef / gg
Sonnet Cycle
series of sonnets on a particular theme to a particualr individual
-shakesspeare's cycles included 126 to an unidentified man, 26 to a mysteripus dark lady, and 2 extra to complete the 154 sonnets
couplet
clinches, sums up, enhances
-2 lines
quatrian
4 lines
tercet
6 lines