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membranes that surround the CNS


membranes that lie between the bone and soft tissues

dura mater/ arachnoid mater/ pia mater

three layers of the meninges (superficial to deep)

dura mater

layer of meninges composed of white fibrous CT and contains many blood vessels and nerves

dura mater

forms the inner periosteum of the skull bones

epidural space

provides a protective pad around the spinal cord

epidural space

seperates the dura mater from the vertebrae

subarachnoid space

contains cerebrospinal fluid between the arachnoid and the pia maters

pia mater

layer of meninges that is thin and contains many blood vessels and nerves

helps cushion/ nourishes/ maintain stable ionic concentration/ provides pathway to blood for wastes

functions of the cerebrospinal fluid


the 4 cavities in the brain

choroid plexuses

masses of blood capillaries in brain ventricles that produce CSF


cells that cover capillaries and form a cerebrospinal fluid barrier

cerebrospinal fluid barrier

protects the CNS from harmful substances in the blood

arachnoid villi

reabsorbs CSF

spinal cord

begins at the foramen magnum and terminates between the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae

spinal nerves

connect the CNS to the PNS

cervical enlargement

supples the nerves to the upper limbs

lumbar enlargement

gives off nerves to the lower limbs

conus medullaris

conical tapering of spinal equine

conus medullaris

extension of the lumbar enlargement

filum terminale

arise at conus meddularis

filum terminale

extension of the pia mater

cauda equina

formed by the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves at the end of the cord

anterior median fissure/ posterior median sulcus

two deep longitudinal grooves that divide the cord into right and left halves

gray commissure

connects the right and left sides of the spinal cord


the majority of gray matter in the spinal cord

anterior/ posterior/ lateral funiculi

three regions of white matter

nerve tracts

major nerve pathways


nerves that enter posterior cord


nerves that exit the anterior cord

transmit nerve impulses to and from the brain/ house the spinal reflexes

functions of the spinal cord

nerve tracts

provide communication between the brain and PNS


tracts that carry information to the brain


tracts that carry information away from the brain


nerve fibers within the ascending and descending tracts

subarachnoid space/ central canal

CSF flows through these

foramen magnum

the spinal cord begins here

filum terminale

helps anchor spinal cord in place

gray commissure

the horizontal bar of gray maatter in the middle of the spinal cord

sensory/ motor

two types of nerves

spinal nerves

formed by the anterior and posterior roots of the spinal cord


cordlike bundle of nerve fibers held together by layers of CT


nerves that conduct impulses into the brain and spinal cord


nerves that carry impulses to muscles or glands


nerves that include both sensory and motor

spinal nerves

provide two-way communication between the spinal cord and parts of the uppoer and lower limbs, neck, and trunk


surrounds each nerve fiber


divides groups of fibers into fascicles


covers the entire nerve

cervical - 8/ thoracic - 12/ lumbar - 5/ sacral - 5/ coccygeal - 1

groups of spinal nerves and number of pairs


a complex network of spinal nerves


nerve that conducts impulses to the diaphragm


automatic responses to changes within or outside the body


reflex where sensory neurons communicating directly to a motor neuron

intercostals nerves

the anterior branches of the thoracic spinal nerves do not enter a plexus and instead become these

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