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56 terms

Ch. 13: Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerve

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meninges
membranes that surround the CNS
meninges
membranes that lie between the bone and soft tissues
dura mater/ arachnoid mater/ pia mater
three layers of the meninges (superficial to deep)
dura mater
layer of meninges composed of white fibrous CT and contains many blood vessels and nerves
dura mater
forms the inner periosteum of the skull bones
epidural space
provides a protective pad around the spinal cord
epidural space
seperates the dura mater from the vertebrae
subarachnoid space
contains cerebrospinal fluid between the arachnoid and the pia maters
pia mater
layer of meninges that is thin and contains many blood vessels and nerves
helps cushion/ nourishes/ maintain stable ionic concentration/ provides pathway to blood for wastes
functions of the cerebrospinal fluid
ventricles
the 4 cavities in the brain
choroid plexuses
masses of blood capillaries in brain ventricles that produce CSF
ependymal
cells that cover capillaries and form a cerebrospinal fluid barrier
cerebrospinal fluid barrier
protects the CNS from harmful substances in the blood
arachnoid villi
reabsorbs CSF
spinal cord
begins at the foramen magnum and terminates between the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae
spinal nerves
connect the CNS to the PNS
cervical enlargement
supples the nerves to the upper limbs
lumbar enlargement
gives off nerves to the lower limbs
conus medullaris
conical tapering of spinal equine
conus medullaris
extension of the lumbar enlargement
filum terminale
arise at conus meddularis
filum terminale
extension of the pia mater
cauda equina
formed by the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves at the end of the cord
anterior median fissure/ posterior median sulcus
two deep longitudinal grooves that divide the cord into right and left halves
gray commissure
connects the right and left sides of the spinal cord
interneurons
the majority of gray matter in the spinal cord
anterior/ posterior/ lateral funiculi
three regions of white matter
nerve tracts
major nerve pathways
sensory
nerves that enter posterior cord
motor
nerves that exit the anterior cord
transmit nerve impulses to and from the brain/ house the spinal reflexes
functions of the spinal cord
nerve tracts
provide communication between the brain and PNS
ascending
tracts that carry information to the brain
descending
tracts that carry information away from the brain
axons
nerve fibers within the ascending and descending tracts
subarachnoid space/ central canal
CSF flows through these
foramen magnum
the spinal cord begins here
filum terminale
helps anchor spinal cord in place
gray commissure
the horizontal bar of gray maatter in the middle of the spinal cord
sensory/ motor
two types of nerves
spinal nerves
formed by the anterior and posterior roots of the spinal cord
nerve
cordlike bundle of nerve fibers held together by layers of CT
sensory
nerves that conduct impulses into the brain and spinal cord
motor
nerves that carry impulses to muscles or glands
mixed
nerves that include both sensory and motor
spinal nerves
provide two-way communication between the spinal cord and parts of the uppoer and lower limbs, neck, and trunk
endoneurium
surrounds each nerve fiber
perineurium
divides groups of fibers into fascicles
epineurium
covers the entire nerve
cervical - 8/ thoracic - 12/ lumbar - 5/ sacral - 5/ coccygeal - 1
groups of spinal nerves and number of pairs
plexus
a complex network of spinal nerves
phrenic
nerve that conducts impulses to the diaphragm
reflexes
automatic responses to changes within or outside the body
monosynaptic
reflex where sensory neurons communicating directly to a motor neuron
intercostals nerves
the anterior branches of the thoracic spinal nerves do not enter a plexus and instead become these