Modern Middle East
Terms in this set (31)
Jewish self determination
The right to govern one's own affairs free of outside interference
3 factors when considering self-determination
Defense, history and culture
A plan of action.
In foreign affairs, deterrence refers to the use of the threat of military action to compel an adversary to do something, or to prevent them from doing something, that another state desires.
When governments act in their own perceived self interest rather than their stated values
A Latin term meaning holy land. The term signifies the shift from the Roman Empire's attitude towards the Land of Israel from being of strictly strategic significance to the Byzantine/Christian belief that the land has religious significance as well.
What is the importance of Israel to Jews, Christians and Muslims?
Jews: Promised land and covenant between Abraham and God
Christians: Jesus born and died, Christianity started
Islam: Muhammad died in Jerusalem
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad. Jerusalem is sacred because it is thought it is where Muhammad went to heaven
The Muslim community or nation.
The Islamic term for "holy war".
Is the second largest denomination of Islam. While a minority in the Umma, the shiites are the majority population in Iran, Iraq and Syria.
Is the largest branch of Islam.
The term is often applied to successions of Muslim empires that have existed in the Middle East. Conceptually the caliphate represents the political unity of the entire community of Muslim faithful (the umma) ruled by a single caliph.
A regional district in the Ottoman Empire.
Bilad al Sham
The villyet of Greater Syria that included present day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel.
It is a title of respect, which was used in Ottoman Empire (Turkey). It is generally given to members of the learned professions, wealthy land owners, government officials and others who have high rank.
A peasant farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East. The word derives from the Arabic word for ploughman or tiller.
Cift Hahn (Turkish) or Musha (Arabic) is the land-use system under the Ottoman's whereby fellahin would be "allowed" to work a parcel of land owned by an effendi family. Fellahin would live in villages (managed by the mukhtar) and work a field that could be no larger than what two adults and two oxen could plow in a single day.
A series of reforms promulgated by the Ottoman Sultan in the late 19th century. The most significant reform enabled effendi to buy and sell real estate within the empire.
A movement whose goal was the agricultural settlement of the Land of Israel. The group consisted of fourteen university and they helped establish Rishon Letzion ("First to Zion").
Hebrew for a pioneer.
A Zionist ideology most closely associated with Theodore Herzl. Political Zionists believe that the only solution to anti-Semitism is Jewish self-determination.
A Zionist ideology that values Jewish culture and history, including language and historical roots, rather than political Zionism. Supporters of this strategy promoted the revival and fostering of a Jewish national culture. Zionism was seen as a way to reconnect Jews to Judaism by creating settlements in Eretz Yisrael filled with well-versed Hebrew-speakers. Cultural Zionists saw Israel and the Hebrew language as integral parts of the Jewish national heritage, and not necessarily of religious significance.
A Zionist ideology associated with AD Gordon, Labor Zionists believed that only by physical labor and returning to the land could the Jewish people achieve national salvation. Gordon was a major force behind the movement to collectivize Jewish settlements in Palestine. The first kibbutz was begun by Gordon and his followers at Deganya.
World Zionist Congress
The WZC was the political and diplomatic arm of the Zionist movement. Their goal was to build an infrastructure to further the cause of Jewish settlement in Palestine.
Jewish National Fund
The Jewish National Fund (abbreviated as JNF) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine. JNF was the principal economic tool for the Zionist settlement of Palestine.
A religious Zionist organization that believes that the Torah should be at the centre of Zionism, a sentiment expressed in the Mizrachi slogan Am Yisrael B'Eretz Yisrael al pi Torat Yisrael ("The land of Israel for the people of Israel according to the Torah of Israel").
A collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. Kibbutzim began as utopian communities, a combination of socialism and Labor Zionism.
The study of populations
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