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GML Chapter 16 Buzzwords
Terms in this set (57)
The distance separating two sides of a train track. Was made standard across the nation at a 4 feet 8.5 inches in 1886. Made it possible for trains of one company to trail on another companies tracks.
Railroad Line that goes from Pacific to Atlantic Oceans. By 1890 there were 5.
standard time zones
Major railroad companies divided the nation into 4 different zones to divide time.
A and P Stores
Also knowing as Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company. Was a nationwide Grocery Store.
Sears and Roebuck
Based in Chicago was a mail order firm selling clothing, jewelry, farm equipment and other goods to rural families nationwide.
Born in Ohio in 1847 had little formal education, Helped establish many industries and inventions such as the phonograph, lightbulb, motion picture and system for generating and distributing electricity
Born in modern day Croatia, went to the US at age 28, and developed the electric motor using the alternating current.
Used by Nikola Tesla, would overcome many of the challenges of using electricity for commercial and industrial purposes. Used for the electric motor.
Legal device where the affairs of several companies were managed under a single director.
J. P. Morgan
Financier who founded company US steel who combined 8 large steel companies into one company in 1901.
Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation led by Rockefeller
Emigrated with his family from native Scotland at 13 and worked in textile factories. Soon would become a management position for company Pennsylvania Railroad. Tried to establish a vertically integrated steel company. Became very rich and ran companies with a "dictorial hand"
Strategy used by Andrew Carnegie that involved controlling every phase of the steel transportation from raw materials to transportation to manufacturing to distribution.
John D. Rockefeller
Began his career as a clerk for a Cleveland merchant and rose to dominate the oil industry. Founded Standard Oil Company. Through competition he drove out other companies and fixed prices. Used Horizontal Integration. Soon established a monopoly controlling 90 percent of the oil industry. Gave away most of his fortune. Fought unions
Strategy used by John Rockefeller to buy out competing oil companies to create a monopoly.
"The Theory of the Leisure Class"
Published by Thorstein Veblen in 1899 was a criticism of Upper Class Culture and focussed on spending money on goods that are not needed.
"How the Other Half Lives"
Published in 1890 by Jacob Riis, offered an account of living conditions among the poor. Showed pictures of apartments that were overcrowded and dark.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Historian who gave "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" lecture. He said that the qualities of American Culture are tied to the desire to head West. He said that the west was a "safety value "
Law made in 1862 that promised land to anyone who settled in the West and improve it. Envisioned a matter of family farmer. Was refuted by John Powell
Farms that covered thousands of acres and employed many agricultural workers. Were a minority of farms in the trans Mississippi West.
Kansas Pacific Railroad
Railroad that had stations at Abilene, Dodge City and Wichita in Kansas. Became a method of transporting millions of cattle.
Huge areas of land owned by the government out west; used for grazing cattle.
Transportation of Cattle by Whites, mexicans and Black cowboys. Ended in the mid 1880s when Farmers enclosed many areas in barbed wire fences making it difficult to transport, and two bad winters destroyed the cattle.
Collection of Whites, Mexicans and Blacks who transported cattle across the Open Range. Become symbols of freedom, but were subject to low pay.
Put up by farmers to prevent Cowboys from participating in the long drive. Enclosed their land and prevented unauthorized access to the land.
Indian chief who was leader of the Nez Perce Indians. He and his tribe were chased out of their homeland .He gave a speech against their confinement said that all should be equal.
Major Indian/american Battle where 250 Americans died. Indians were lead by Sitting Bull (Sioux) and Crazy Horse (Cheyenne). Americans led by General Custer.
leader of the Americans during Little Bighorn. He and his 250 men were killed in the little bighorn
Leader of Sioux during Little bighorn. Teamed up with crazy house and the Cheyenne to massacre 250 americans
Leader of Cheyenne during Little bighorn. Teamed up with sitting bull and the sioux to massacre 250 americans
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Government agency made in the 1800s to work on policies with Indians. Established many boarding schools including the Carlisle School.
School created by BIA to "americanize" indian children and adapt them to the white culture. most children eventually went back to reservations
Dawes Act (1876)
Named after Senator Henry L Dawes of Massachusetts. Broke up land of all Indian tribes into smaller areas that would be distributed among Indian families and the remainder going to White buyers. Any Indian who adopted this would become a full fledged American Citizen. Was disastrous for Indians, very beneficial for Whites.
Elk v. Wilkins (1884)
Supreme court case that ruled that indians that did not give up their tribes were not entitled to the 14th and 15th amendment rights of Citizenship. Questioned whether Indians had achieved the degree of 'Civilization' required of American Citizens.
Native American Religious revitalization that told of a day where the whites disappear, the buffalo come back and they could practice their religion freely. During one of these at Wounded Knee Creek soldiers opened fire and killed 200 indians.
Located in South Dakota. On December 29, 1890 Soldiers opened fire on a Ghost Dance killing 150-200 Indians. Marked the end of armed conflict between the natives population and the settlers.
Era from 1870 to 1890. Named after title of 1873 Mark Twain novel. Gilded means covered with a layer of gold, but also means that it's ONLY covered and is thus of few value and misleading. Referring to the remarkable expansion and the damage caused to those who were left behind and abondended. Led to growing gap between rich and poor.
Lead by Boss William M Tweed. Was A corrupt organization that tried to influence urban politics. Forged ties with railroad men, won support from poor people. However would be ousted in the 1870s
Led the Tweed Ring. Would try and influence politics. While his organization was ousted out of NY in the 1870s he remained popular and many considered him an Urban Lawmaker
Corporation formed by inner ring of Union Pacific Railroads shareholders. Was used to Oversee companies government assisted construction. Allowed them to sign contracts with themselves making lots of money.
Ring of Grant administration that united Republican officials tax collectors and whiskey makers to make a massive scheme to avoid taxes.
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
Paper money issued by the Union during the Civil War, during the 1870s was withdrawn from circulation
Meaning that US currency could be exchanged for Gold for a Set rate. Had been suspended during Civil War, was returned in 1879
Supported by Republicans, was a tax on imports, aimed to encourage american made products. Opposed by Democrats.
Civil Service Act
Law created in 1883 that created a system were government jobs were hired based on ability not how influential one was. Originally only applied for 10 percent of government employees but was important in removing power of political machines
Interstate Commerce Commission
ICC, was founded in 1887 by congress as a way to prevent against bad railroad practices. Made sure that farmers and merchants were being treated with fair rates and that some companies were not favored other others. First federal agency to regulate economic activity, but did not have power to establish rates, could only sue companies in court.
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
Banned combinations and practices that restrained free trade. However its vague language made it difficult/impossible to enforce.
Also called Patrons of Husbandry, were critics of the railroads. Wanted fair freight/train weights and fair warehouse charges created by national government. Had over 700,000 members. Was successful in getting some states to investigate and regulate rail prices.
Based of idea Made in 1859 by British Scientist Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species. Stated that evolution was a process in human society also and that government must not interfere. Believed that efforts to improve working conditions were misguided.
Lochner v. New York
1905 Supreme Court Case that ruled against the establishment of a ten hour per day or 60 hour per week working limit for Bakers. Majority said that law violated liberty and freedoms.
Great Railroad Strike
In 1877, was the First nationwide Strike. Train workers everywhere protested and refused to work due to their low wages. Devastated train nationwide, Military was sent in to force them back to work. In Pittsburgh, over 20 workers were killed by the Militarry, leading to workers responding by burning down railroad yards.
Knights of Labor
A labor organizing group. Organized many unskilled and skilled workers with people of all races and genders. Had 800,000 members in 1886 and had millions participate in Strikes. Led by Terence V. Powderly
Terence V. Powderly
Leader of the Knights of Labors in late 1870s, said that "Americans were not the free people that we imagine we are"
Gospel of Wealth
Essay written by Andrew Carnigie based on the "trickle-down" idea of rich people giving back to society.
Originated as an effort to reform protestant churches by expanding appeal in urban neighborhoods. Taught charity and helping others.
Haymarket Square Riot
Protest of workers in 1886 in Chicago were four strikers were killed. The next day a protest was held for the killings. Someone through a bomb at a police officer causing them to open fire and kill bystanders and some policeman.
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