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Exceptional Learners chapter 1 and 2
ch. 1-3 key terms
Terms in this set (146)
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
A condition resulting from administration of an excessive concentration of oxygen at birth; causes scar tissue to form behind the lens of the eye.
A metabolic genetic disorder caused by the inability of the body to convert phenylanine to tyrosine; resulting in abnormal brain development.
This is an inherited (genetic) recessive disorder of the EXOCRINE glands. Causes secretions of thick mucus that blocks the respiratory and GI system. This clogs up the alveoli (poor oxygenation) and GI system (blocks production of pancreatic enzymes so cannot absorb nutrients). Diagnosed by positive sweat test. Child may have had meconium ileus (small bowel obstruction) as newborn. May be placed on prophylactic antibiotics.
group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system
A human genetic disease resulting from having an extra chromosome 21, characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects.
a condition in which there is an abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain
Education for all handicapped children act
(1975) guaranteed that children with disabilities will receive an appropriate education; is now known as IDEA
Individuals with disabilites Education Act (IDEA)
the federal law that provdes federal funding for special education and regulates special education procedures of free, appropriate public education for every child 3-21 yrs old.
American with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Law enacted by the US Congress in 1990. It is a civil rights law that makes it illegal, under certain circumstances, to discriminate against people with disabilities
Individualized family service plan (IFSP)
Individual Family Services Plan for at risk children (Birth -3yrs), developmentally delayed
a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
present at birth but not necessarily hereditary
Interim alternative educational setting (IAES)
A temporary placement outside general education for students whose behavior is extremely problematic, but in which their education is continued
approach to teaching reading and listening comprehension in which students take turns asking teacher-like questions of classmates.
small groups of classmates with heterogeneous abilities to work toward common goals
Response to Intervention (RTI)
a method for identifying children with learning disabilities in which a child receives increasingly more intensive levels, or "tiers", of instruction until his or her response to that intervention is acceptable.
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
Evaluation that consists of finding out the consequences (what purposes the behavior serves), antecedents (what triggers the behavior), and setting events (contextual factors) that maintain inappropriate behaviors
change in the delivery of instruction, type of student performance, or method of assessment which do not significantly change the content or conceptual difficulty of the curriculum.
Changes made in instruction or assessment to make it possible for a student with a disability to respond more normally.
Changes in curricular content or conceptual difficulty or changes in instructional objectives and methods.
refers to the percentage of a population or number of individuals having a particular exceptionality. Accurate estimates of prevalence depend on the ability to count the number of peole in a givne population who have a certain exceptionality.
Prevalence of intellectual disability
might be estimated at 2.3% which means 2.3% of the population or 23 peole in every 1,000 are assumed to have intellectual disabilities.
Prevalence of giftedness
assumed to be between 3% and 5% then somewhere between 30 and 50 people n a sample of 1,000would have special gifts of some kind
Categories of disability that are found relatively frequently (learning disabilities, communication disorders, emotional or behavioral disorders.)
Categories of disability occur relatively rarely (blindness, deafness, deaf-blindness)
means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student and that might require special materials, teaching techniques, or equipment and/or facilities. Students with visiaul impairments might require reading materials in large print or braille, etc.
special transportaiton, psychological assessment, physical and occupational therapy, medical treatment and counseling might be necessary
single most important goal
is finding and capitalizing on exceptional students' abilities
is more closely controlled in pace or rate, intensity, relentlessness, structure, reinforcement, teacher pupil ratio, curriculum and monitoring or assessment
in which the child's charateristics rather than prescribes academic content provide the basis for teachign tecniques
Jean Marc-Gaspard Itard
a french philosopher known for is work with deaf children; found a child in preteens living without clothes or shelter; gave proof that children could still learn (1775-1838) a french physicicain who was an authority on diseases of the ear and on the educaiton fo deaf students. HE began to educatea boy of 12 years of age who has been roaming naked and wild in the forests of france (sometiems referred to as the wild child or the wild boy of Avyron)
mentor - a prominent french physician who was an early advocate of humane treatment fo insane people advised Itard that his efforts would be unsuccessful because the boy, Victor was a hopeless idiot. but Itard perserved - he did not eliminate victor's disabilities, but he did dramatically improve the wild child's behaviro throug patient, systematic educative procedures
(1812-1880) one of Itards first students - Seguin immigrated to the US in 1848 - he became famous as an educatior of the so-called idiotic children, evne though most thinkers of the day were convinced that such children could nto be tarught anythign of significance
Special Education foundation: Carefully seqeunced series of educational tasks
beginnign wtih tasks the child can perform and graudally leading to more complex learning
Special Education foundation: Emphasis on stimulation and awakening of the child's senses
to make the child mroe aware of and responsive to educational stimuli
Special Education foundation
Individualized instruciton - a carefully sequenced series of educational tasks - emphasis on stimulation and awakening of the child's senses, meticulous arrangemetn of the child's enviornment, immediate reward for coorect performance, tutoring in fucntional skills, belief that every child should be educated to the greatest extent possible (Itard and Sequin that helped to form these)
Special Education foundation: Individualized instruction
in which the child's characterisitcs rather than prescribed academic content, provide the basis for teaching technqiues
Special Education foundation: meticulous arrangemet of the childs environment
so that the structure of the environment and the child's experience of it lead naturally to learning
Special Education foundation: immediate reward for correct performance
providign reinforcemnt for desirable behavior
Special Education foundation: tutoring in functional skills
to make the child as self-sufficient and productive as possible in every day life
Special Education foundation: belief tha tevery child should e educated to the greatest extent possible
because every child can improve to some degree
Samuel gridley Howe
(1801-1876) - an 1824 graduate of Harvard MEdical School. He was a young US thinker who was concerned with the education of students with disabiliteis. physician and educator. he was a political and social reformer, a champion of humanitarian causes and emanicpation. He was instrumetnal in foundign the perkins school for the blind in watertown MA - he also taught students who were deaf and blind. He taught Laura Bridgman who was deaf and blind and greatly influenced the education fo Helen Keller. He was a force behind the organization of an experimental school for children with intellectual disabilites and was personally acquainted with Sequin
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
(1787-1851) a minister, was a student at Andover Theolotical Seminary, he tried to teach a girl who was deaf. Visited Europe to learn about educating the deaf and in 1817 established the first Americna residential school in hartford CT for students who were deaf (now known as the American school of the Deaf) Gallaudet University in Washington DC the only liberal arts college for students who are deaf was named in his honor.
teh philosophy that we should use "means which are as culuturally normative as possible, in order to establish and/or maintain personal behaviors and characteristics which are as culturally normative as possible. Society breakds down the barriers to participation of peoel with disabilities in normal life. This lead to closing of institutions
nature vs. nurture
great controversy involving the education of eceptional learners is on the extent to which nature and nurtuer contribute to what a child becomes. What is attributable to biological factors such as genetics and other aspects of physical endowment and what is attibutable to enviornmetnal factors such as opportunity, encouragemetn, and teaching - This was part of Itards work in teh early 19th century - and continues to be debated today
As a philosophy and a principle, the belief that people with disabilities should, to the maximum extent possible, be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability. As an approach to intervention, the use of progressively more typical settings and procedures "to establish and/or maintain personal behaviors which are as culturally normal as possible" (Wolfensberger, 1972, cited in CHH, 2 Ed).
continues to be a goal in special educationa dn all other aspects of respondign to disabilty
breaking down barriers to participation of people with disabilities in activiteis with non-handicapped inviduals was one of the ideas leading to this movement. It was in the late 20th century. At one time it was common to place nearly all children and adults iwth intellectual disabilitiesy in a residential institution. In 1960s and 1970s there was a mvoement to move peole out of institutions
exist for individuals with emotional difficulties who no longer are thoguht to need the more isolated environment of a large instiution. However, many now are homeless or in jail
most controversial issue grwoing out of the idea of normalization. Inclusion or integration has long been an issue with all exceptional students including gifted and talented. This entails inclusion of exceptional learners in ordinary classrooms with their nonexceptional peers. Yet it has been a very heated topic
psychology and sociology and especially of the widespread use of mental tests in teh early years of the 20th century had enormous implications for the growth of special education. banding sociologists, social workers, anthropologists drew attention to this
teacher in New York Cityin the early 20th century - was highly instrumetnal in the development of special education as a profession. She and the NYC superintendent of schools attempted to use information about child development, social work, mental testing, and instruction to address the needs of children and youths who were being ill served in or excluded from general education classes and schools. She was instrumetnal that every exceptional child had an appropriate education and received the related health and social services necessary for optimum learning in school. She and others from the US and Canada founded the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) which is the primary professional organization of special educators.
Contemporary special education
is a professional field with roots in several academic disciplines - especially medicine, psychology, sociology and social work in addition to professional education. IT's a discipline that is sufficiently differnet from teh mainstream of professional education to require special training program sbut sufficiently like the mainstream to maintain a primary concern for schools and teaching
Eunice Kennedy Schriver
had a sister with an intellectual disability and who originated the Special Olympics
stands as an example of advocacy for caring and fair treatment of indivdiuals with disabilities, Ms. Schriver undeniably changed the self-perception of many peole with disabilities and the perceptions fo disabilities by the general public
1. Provide an informal group for parents who understand one another's problems and needs and help one another deal with anxieties and frustrations, 2. provide information regarding services and potential resources and 3) provide the structure for obtaining needed services for their children.
ARC (ASsociation for Retarded Citizens), the National Association for Gifted Children, the Learning Disabilities ASsociation, the Autisim Society of America and the Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health
Inclusions - parents of children cite the following reasons to support inclusion:
1. the child acquires mroe academic or functional skills because of the higher expectations and greater stimulation in the general education classroom. 2. Non disabled students benefit by leanring to know children with disabilities; they become more sensitive to people with disabilities. 3. Being around "normal" kids helps studetns with disabilities acquire social skills. 4. Siblings with and without disabilities go to the same school 5. Segregation of any kind is morally wrong; inclusion is morally right
Inclusion - parents of children that don't want to support for these reasons
1. the type of severity of the child's disability precludes benefits from inclusion 2. inclusion woudl overburden or negatively affect regular classroom teachers and students. 3. the curriculum of the general educaiton classrom doesnt' match the needs of the child. 4. The child doesnot get the needed teacher attention or services in general education. 5. The child is unlikely to be treated well by nondisabled children in the regular classroom. 6. the child is not likely to benefit but is likely to be overwhelmed by the surroundings in teh regular classroom. 7. the child is too young (and needs more supervision or sturcutre) or too old (having become used to a special class_) to benefit from inclusion. 8. The child needs to be around othe rchildren with similar disabilities; he or she fits in better, feels less stigmatized or different, and has more real friends in a special setting. 9. The child is too disruptiveor aggressive or has too many behavior problems for a regular class. 10. Teachers and others in general education don't have the appropriate training for dealing with the child's needs.
Education for all handicapped Chldren Act - PL 94-142
Landmark federal law passed in 1975.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
In 1990 the Education for all handicapped Children's Act was amended to become this. In 1997 the law was amended again but hte naem was not changed. The law was reauthorized agian in 2004 as the Individuals with disabilities Education Improvement ACT
Individuals with disabilities Education Improvement Act - - sometimes referred to as IDEA 2004 - it ensures that all children and youths with disabilities have the right to a free, appropriate public education
IDEA - major provisions
Identification, Free appropriate Public Education (FAPE), Due PRocess, Parent/Guardian Surrogate Consultation, Least Restrictive Environment (LRE), Individualized Education PRogram (IEP), Nondiscriminatory Evaluation, Confidentiality, Personnel Development, In-Service
IDEA - Identification
Extensive efforts to screen and identify all children and youths with disabilities
IDEA - Free Appropriate Public Education FAPE)
Every student with a disability has an appropirate public education at no cost to the parents or guardian
IDEA - Due Process
The student's and parents rights to information and informed consent before the student is evaluated, labeled, or placed and the right to an impartial due process hearing if they disagree with the school's decisions
IDEA - Parent/Guardian Surrogate Consultation
The student's paretns or guardian are consulted about he studetn's evaluation and placement and hte educaitonal plan, if the parents or guardian are unknown or unavailable, a surrogate parent must be found to act for the student
IDEA - Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
The student is educated in the least restrictive envionrment consistent with his or her educational needs and insofar as possible, wtih students without disabilities
IDEA - Individualized Educaiton Program (IEP)
A written individualized education program is prepared for each student with a disability,including levels of functioning, long-term goals, extent to which the student will nto participate in the general education classroom and curriculum, services to be provided, plans for initiating and evaluating the services, and needed transition services from school to work or continued education
IDEA - Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
the student is evaluated in all areas of suspected disability and in a way that is not biased by his language or culutral characteristics or disabilites Evaluation must be by a multidisciplinary team, and no single evaluation procedure may be used ans the sole criterion for placmeent or planning
The results of evaluation and placement are kept confidential, though the student's paretns or guardian may have access to the records
Personnel Development, In-Service
Training for teachers and other professional personnel, including in-service training for general education teachers, in meeting the needs of students with disabilities
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
ensures the right of individuals with disabilities to nondiscriminatory treatment in other aspects oftheir lives; it provides protections of civil rights in the specific area of employment, transportaiton, public accommodations, state and local government, and telecommunications
IDEA and another federal law
focusing on intervention in early childhood (PL 99-457) mandate a free appropriate public education for every child or youth between the ages of 3 and 21, regardless of the nature or severeity of the disability. It also provides incentives for states to develop early intervention programs for infants with known disabilities and those who are considered to be at risk.
ADA and PL 99-457
This and the ADA law require public school systems to indeitfy all children and youths with disabilityties and to provide the special education and related services to these students.
federal law that was revolutionary because it was the first federal law mandating free appropriate public education for all children with disabilities.
there was an attempt in the 1980's to emphasize the state's rights and local autonomy plus a political strategy fo federal deregulation led to attempts to repeal some of the provisions of IDEA and loosen federal rules and regulations. State and local govenrmetns pay most of the cost of special education as a long, strange trip.
No child Left behind Act (NCLB)
President George W. Bush - federal act. Became a major facto in the focus of public schooling, including special education. NCLB was an attempt to imrpove the academic performance of all students, including those with disabiliteis. Under NCLB and IDEA most students with disabiliteis are expected to take standards tests of academic achievement and to achieve at a level equal to that of students without disabilities. Teachers must be hihgly qualified. Some have noted core requirements of NCLB are neither reasonable nor achievable, particularly with reference to special education.
laws often have littel or no effect on the lives of individuals with disabiliteis until courts interpret exactly what the laws require in practice. Exceptional children get their day in court more frequently since the IDEA has been in place through the federal and state laws that were passed).
(1953) noted that in the early days of public education, school attendance was seen as a privilege that could be awarded to or witheheld from an indivdual child at the discretion of local school officials. The begging of the 20th century courts tended to defend the majority of schoolchildren from a disabled minority.
is now focused on ensuring that every child receives an education that is appropriate for her individual needs. - it doesn't mean that laws or litigation support full inclusion of all children with disabilities in general education
1) because special education services aren't being provided for students whose parents want them or 2) because students are being assigned to special education when their parents believe they should be. Suits are brought by paretns of students who have mild or questionable disabilites nd who are already attending school. These parents believe that their children are being stigmatized and discriminated against rather than helped by special education. Courts have to make decisions in which indivdiual studetns' characteristics are weighed against specific educational programs
Hudson v. Rowley
A court case in 1982. The parent's of a deaf child sued the school district because their daughter wasn't provided with a sign language interpretor. The court decided that appropriate education for a deaf child doesn't necessarily mean education that will produce the maximum possible achievement. Amy's parents had contended that she might be able to learn more in school if she were provided with a sign langauge interpreter. Court said because the school had designed an indivdiualized program of special services for AMy and she was achieving at or above the level of her nondisabled classmates teh school system had met its obligation under the law to provide an apporpriate education.
Hudson v. Rowley
one historic court case of the 1980s deserves particular consideration. IN 1982 the US supreme court made its first interpretation of PL 94-142 (now IDEA) - a case involving Amy Rowley (board of education of hendrick)
The Education for all handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142)
1975 - the intent of the original law was the same as the intent today - ensure that all children with disabiliteis receive a free appropriate publci education (FAPE). To provide studetns wtih disabilites appropriate educational services in the setting that maximizes their potential (least restrictive), schools must employ effective practices in identifying exceptional learners. Debate continues on how to best identify students who are exceptional learners
Primary methods for identifying students
response to intervention
Prereferral team (PRT)
Made up of a variety of professionals, especially general and special educators, who work with general education teachers to come up with strategies for teaching difficult-to-teach children. Designed to influence general educators to take ownership of difficult-to-teach students and to minimalize inappropriate referrals to special education. Work with general education teacher tohelp identify alternative educational strategices for teh student before making a referral for special education evaluation. Little research on them has been done
Response to intervention (RTI)
reglations that state in determining whether a child has a specifc learning disability, states may rely on a process that determines whether the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation - in practice this concept has been termed RTI
What is RTI
response to intervention refers to a students change (or lack of change) in academic performance or behavior as a result fo instruction. in an identification model - a student must first receive quaity instruction in teh general ed classroom before a formal evaluation for special education services. Teachers gather data to dermine whether teh student is benefiting. ONly after all data is brought forth can a formal evaluation to special education occur. RTI's are applied to students with emotinal and behavioral disorders, intellectual disabilites, autism and giftedness
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
the legal document that describes theeducational services a student receives. IEP's varygreaty in format and detail from one child to another and from one school district to another. Federal and state regulations don't specify exactly how much detail must be included in an IEP, only that it must be a written statement developed in a meeting of a representative of the local school district, the teacher, the paretns or guardian, and the child, and that it must binclude certain elements.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
requreiments have the information from the IDEA in addtion to the heart of the plan: its instructional components. see page 29
Right Way Placement
Evaluation/identification - IEP - placement
Wrong Way Placement
evaluation/identification - placement - IEP
should be based on outcomes appropriate for the child and not on dictated state standards.
is one that focuses on outcomes based on state standards rather than on individual student needs.
the students needs have been carefully assessed. a team of professionals and the parents have worked together to designa program of education to best meet the students needs, goals and objectives are stated clearly so that progress in reaching them can be evaluated
Individualized family service plan (IFSP)
a plan mandated by PL 99-457 to provide services for young children with disabiliteis(under three years of age) and their families; drawn up by professionals and parents; similar to an IEP for older children. May be written forchildren up to 6 years of age, but usually an IFSP is written for infants and children up to 3 years of age, with the IEP being more commonf or children that are older
Individual with disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements for the individualized family services plan (IFSP)
1. a statemetn of the child's present level fo development in these areas: physical (including vision, hearing, and health status), cognitive, communication, psychosocial, and adaptive behavior.
2. a statement of family strengths, resources, concerns and priorities related to the child's development
3. a statement of the major outcomes expected to be achieved for the child and family
4. a statemetn of the frequency, intensity, and method of delivering the early intervention services necessary to produce desired outcomes ofr the child and family
5. a statement of the natural enviornments where services will be provided or a statement explaining why services will not be provided in anatural enviornment.
6. projected dates for the initiation of services and anticipated duriation of services
7. the name of a service coordinator responsibel for implementation of the IFSP and coordination with other agencies/professionals
8. steps to be implemented to ensure successful transition (a transition plan) to preschool services provided by the public schools
9. Written consent from the parents or legal guardian.
general and special educators might co-teach with each providing instruction adn the specia educator emphasizing instruction of the exceptional students
provides services fro students and teachers in a single school Works as a consultant to the classroom teacher, advising on how to instruct and manage the student in teh classroom and perhaps demonstrating instructional techniques.
A planed defined in the students IEP that specifies a students goals and services related to transitioning from high school to post-high school experiences. the IDEA act requires that the IEP include the transition plan before the age of 16 It is usually done annually after age of 16. For those that are deemed with a chance of failure it may start earlier
Assisting adults with disabilities to obtain jobs in the competitive market and providing them with the necessary physical, instructional, and social support to ensure success is called
depends on two factors - 1) how and how much the student differs from typical students and 2) what resources are available in the school and community
materials and equipment are available and small groups.
typically 15 or less exceptional students with particular needs with a trained special educator & aide The teacher ordinarily has been trained as a special educator and provides all or most of the instruction, assisted by a paraeducator. Most students spend all their day away from nondisabled peers.
special day schools
provide an all day special placement for exceptional learners who need this level of specialization or dedication to their needs
hospital or homebound instruction
physical disbilities, sometimes emotional or behavioral disorder. youngster is in the hospital or home for a short time, but the teacher is still in contact with the classroom teacher
students receive 24-hour care away from home - often a distance from their communiteis. Highest level of specializatin or dedication on the continuum of alternative placements required by IDEA. Might make period visits home or return each weekend - but during the week the reside at the instiution
Least restrictive enviornment (LRE)
usually means the student should be spearated from nondisabled classmates and from home, family and community as little as possible. The student's life shoudl be as normal as possible and the intervention should be consistent wtih indivdiual needs and not interfere with indivdiual freedom any more than absolutely necessary
Least Restrictive environment
would be best termed the most enabling enviornment
Gliona and colleagues
have suggested a diret access model for conceptualizing LRE
Direct Access model
shown on page 35.
percentages of students with disabiliteis
preschoolers and young adults who are ideintfied fro speciale ducation tend to have more severe disabilities than do students k-12. Some school systems do not have general education classes for preschoolers and young adults; therefore, placements in other than general education classes are typically more availble and more appropriate. Curriculum and work-related educational program sfor older teens and young adults with disabilites are frequently offered off hte campuses of general education high schools
describes teaching students with disabiliteis in the same enviornment as their peers who don't have disabilities. Mainstreaming the idea of placing students with disabiliteis in general education classess and other school activities
Five Methods to help students participate in general education
1. Collaborative consultation
2. Cooperative teaching and other team arrangements
3. Curricula and instructional strategies
4. Accommodations and adaptation
5. Training general education teachers to accomodate diversity
the special education teacher or psychologist acts as an expert who provides advice to the geenral education teacher. The special educator might suggest changes to instruction or addiotnal suppots, such as behavior plans or school-home notes
Co-teaching or collaborative teaching or cooperative teaching
takes mutuality and reciprocity in collaborative consultaiton one step further. Co-teaching between general and special educators means "two or more professionals delivering substantive instructions to a diverse or blended, group of students in a single physical space
is an instructional strategy that many proponents of inclusion believe is an effective way to integrate students with disabiliteis into groups of nondisabled peers. IN cooperative learning, students work toegether in heterogenous small groups to solve problems or practice responses
research based instructional strategy to enhance the integration fo studetns with disabilities.
manage behavior problems or any other arrangement in which teacehrs deliberately recruit and train peers to help teach an academic or social skill to a classmate
classwide peer tutoring (CWPT)
all students in the general education clasroom routinely engage in peer tutoring for particular subject matter, such as reading or math. CWPT doesnt' mean that the teacher provides no instruction. teachers must provide instruction in how to do peer tutoring and in the content of the tutoring sessions.
having studentswith disabilities participate on a reduced basis in virtually all activities experienced by all students in the general education classroom. It questions the assumption that includign students with severe intellectual or physical limitations is a waste of time because they cannot benefit from the activities in tehs ame way that nondisabled students can.
take the form of amended materials or assingments and differ from changes in curricula or instructional strategies
include chagnes in instruction that don't significantly chagne the content or conceptual difficulty level of the curriculum
generally invovle more significant modifications of instruction than accomodations
are an example of adaptations, wherein teachers provide choices for assignmetns on a single topic that vary in difficulty. Both the assignment and the subsequent grading differ
describes teachign students with disabilites as a two-person job meaning that truly effective special education requires boht a general education teacher and a special education teacher trained to do fiffernet things, not merely to work together with a common purpose. - he feels things have gotten lost - I propose that a special education coach be assigned to each school building to provide consultation and job-ebedded staff development that helps build capacity among general education teachers
is often not clearly defined, but it generaly reers to students who perform or behave poorly in school and appear likely to fail or fall short of their potential. Some advocates of reform suggest that at-risk students cannot be or should nto be distinguished from those with mild disabilities. Others believe they tend to be ignored because special ed siphons resources from general education.
Participate in educating exceptional students in any one of the following ways
1) make maxinum effort to accomodate individual students needs
2) Evaluate academic abilites and disabilities
3)Refer for evaluation - by law schools must screen and identify all chidlren who have disabilities
4) Participate in eligibility conferences
5) Participate in writing individualized education programs
6) Communicate with parents or guardians
7) Participate in due process hearings and negotiations
8) Collaborate with other professionals in identifying and making maximum use of exceptional students' abilities
Teachers must attain
1) Instructing students with learning problems
2)Managing serious behavior problems
3) Evaluating technological advances
4) Knowing special education law
differ from the screening and progress monitoring measures described earlier in the context RTI - these compare a students perfromance with other students, or compare a state's or districts performance with other states or districts
testing accommodations are procedures that ensure equitable assessment access for students iwth disabiliteis. Might involve altering setting, the presentation format, or the response format. Is based on specific neds of the student.
American with disabilities Act
Civil rights legislation for persons with disabilities ensuring nondiscrimination in a broad range of activites
Due Process Hearing
a non-court proceeding held before an impartial hearing officer
One of five autistic spectrum disorders; characterized by extreme social withdrawal and impairment in communication; other common characteristics are stereotyped movements, resistance to enviornmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences; usually evident before age of 3 years; a pervasive developmental disability characterized by extreme withdrawal, cognitive deficits, language disorders, self-stimulation, and onset before the age of 30 months
Autism or autistic spectrum disorder
a pervasive developmental disabiity characeterized by extreme withdrawal congitive deficits, lnaguage disorders, self-stimulation and onset before the age of 30 months
an inherited disease affecting primarily the gastrointestinial (GI) tract and respiratory organs; characterized by thick sticky mucous that often interferes with breathing or digestiation
the term used in federal special education laws and regulations for problematic behavior that interferes with education; the federal term used to indicate the problems of emotinally disturbed students
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
also known as Public Law 94-142 which became law in 1975 and is now known as the individuals with disabilites Education Act (IDEA) retittled in 1990 and reauthroized in 1997 and 2004
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
injury to the brain (not including conditions present at birth, birth trauma, or degenerative diseases or oconditions) resulting in total or partial disability or psychosocial maladjustment that affects educational performance; may affect cognition, language, memory, attention, reaosning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, snesory or perceptual and motor disaiblites, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, inforation processing or speech
Universal Design for learning (UDL)
The design of new buildigns, tools and instructional programs to make them usable by the widest possible population of potential users. Designing lessons that are appropriate for all learners
quick measures administerred to determine who may need further assessment
having control over one's life, not having to rely on otehrs for making choices about one's quality of life; develops over one's life span
Pivotal response teaching (PRT)
based on the assumption that some skills are critcial or pivotal in order for the indivdual to be able to function in other areas
peers who assist the teacher
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