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Politics of the United States
Terms in this set (26)
Advise and Consent
The power of the senate to approve or disapprove of any of the president's appointments. For example, if the President an appointee for exective office, federal judge, or as ambassadors, the Senate can revoke his appointment with 3/5 of vote. This power ensures Checks and Balances between the Executive branch and Congress.
A government in which one party has majority in the White House and the opposite party controls one or both chambers of Congress. For example, Barrack Obama and his Democratic Party may have control of the White House, while the Republican party holds maority of Congress. This is a problem as it may produce "gridlock" and slows down the legislative process of passing any laws.
The delay of getting anything laws passed due to both parties disagreeing and divided government. Gridlock may not be always bad, and could possibly still produce as much policies as unified ones.
A group of people selected by each state legislature to select the president and vice president. Each state has number of electoral votes on the number of representatives they have (with a minimum of 3 votes), and a canidate wins by getting at least 270 electoral votes. This ensures that there is a balance between small and large states in the election.
People elected by the voters of their state in a presidential election to select a canidate as president or vice president. They assemble in their state capitol to cast their ballots. Those who vote for the canidate that was not voted by majority are called "faithless electors".
Perks of the President
Benefits given to high ranking officials such as the President. The perks of the President include...
1. A salary of $400,000 (taxable)
2. An expense account of $50,000
3. Travel expense of $100,000
4. A pension equal to pay of cabinet member
5. Staff support and Secret Service
6. White House staff (400-500 people)
7. Free travel (Air Force One)
Group of officials who head government departments and advise the President. The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments (ex. Homeland Security). The Cabinet is very important to the President as its members help advise him and help him make decisions.
A President's veto to kill a bill by not signing it within 10 days. For example, if the President refuses to sign a bill regarding to tax revenue and does not do within 10 days, with Congress adjourned, then the bill dies and cannot be revived. Today, any bill that is not signed within 10 days becomes a law automatically, without the Presidents approval.
Executive Office of the President
The branch of the United States government that reports directly and performs staff services for the President, but is outside the White House. For example, the agencies of the Executive Branch include the Office of Management and Budget and the CIA. The Executive Office is not as influential as the White House staff, and must be confirmed with Senate before making appointments with the President.
White House Office
The personal office of the president, which tends to presidential political needs. They are the most influential members of the White House due to how close they work with the President, and do not have to be confirmed by the Senate.
The President's ability to cancel a particular section in a bill passed by the legislature. For example, if Congress passes a bill and the President signs it into law, he has the right of power of "enhanced recission", or remove specific parts of it without vetoing the whole bill.
Clinton v City of New York
The 1998 Supreme Court case where line-item veto was declared unconstitutional. Supreme Court justified this with the explanation that the Constitution gives the President no power to carve up a bill. In result, he must sign the whole thing, veto it, or not sign it and have the bills become law within 10 days.
United States v Nixon
The Supreme Court case that in which executive privilege the President cannot hide information in investigations. This regarded to the investigations involving the Watergate scandal of President Nixon.
Line of Succession
The order in which people assume the presidency. The first to take presidency is the Vice president, following to the Speaker of the House, President pro tempore, and then Secretary of State. One moves up to take presidency if the President dies in office or if he declares that he is unable to work.
A politician in which his or her power is gone becuase he or she is about to leave office. For example, the president would lose most of his powers based on that his term is about to end.
Office of Management and Budget
The executive agency that advises the President on the federal budget. OMB analyzes the national budget and reviews proposals that departments want to have in the President's legislation program. OMB is a nonpartisan agency, and it plays a major role in advocating policies rather than analyzing them.
Pardons and Reprieves
The action of an executive official that forgives and sets aside criminal punishments of a person. This is a check on the Judicial branch as the branch can give unfair punishments to a criminal, and the President can remove and fix that.
The process of removing the President from office. For example, President Andrew Johnsan and Clinton are the only ones that have been impeached. The House indicates wheather the President shall be impeached, and the Senate holds the impeachment trial.
Impoundment of Funds
When the President chooses not to use money given by Congress to use on legislation. Today impounding funds is illeagal and that the President must use all of the money Congress has appropriated.
The amendment which limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve by two terms. This was passed to ensure that no president would become a dictator and hold too much power for that long.
The amendment that establishes the order of succession to the presidency. The amendment solves the problem (from the Succession Act) of who becomes president when the current is disabled, and resolves the problem of succession by having the Vice president to nominate someone to be in his position.
The right of the president to keep information away from Congress. After the Supreme Court case of U.S. v Nixon, the president cannot keep info away from Congress during criminal investigations
Agencies of the Executive Office in which report directly to the President and provides staff services for him. The most important agency of the branch is the Office of Management and Budget. They are not located in the White House and must be confirmed by Senate before making appointments to the President.
Agencies that are not part of the cabinet departments, but still report to the President. They help enforce laws and regulations not covered by the executive departments. For example, Independent agencies include the Federal Trade Commission.
Presidents Staff Organization Structures
Pyramid- assistants report through a hierarchy to a chief of staff, who directly reports to the President
+ : Orderly flow of info and decisions
- : isolating and misinforming to the President)
Cirular- Cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the President
+ : Gives President a great deal of information
- : Confusing and creates conflict between assistants
Ad hoc- Friends and advisers deal directly with President
+ : Flexible and generates ideas
- : Risks cutting off President from officials who are responsible
Trustee approach v Delegate approach
Trustee approach- do what is best and not based on public opinion
Delegate approach- do what the constituents want
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