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AP Biology final
Terms in this set (64)
Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but
do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope?
The following experiment is used for the corresponding question(s).
A researcher discovered a species of moth that lays its eggs on oak trees. Eggs are laid at two
distinct times of the year: early in spring when the oak trees are flowering and in midsummer when
flowering is past. Caterpillars from eggs that hatch in spring feed on oak flowers and look like oak
flowers. But caterpillars that hatch in summer feed on oak leaves and look like oak twigs.
How does the same population of moths produce such different-looking caterpillars on the
same trees? To answer this question, the biologist caught many female moths from the same population
and collected their eggs. He put at least one egg from each female into eight identical cups. The eggs
hatched, and at least two larvae from each female were maintained in one of the four temperature and
light conditions listed below.
In each of the four environments, one of the
caterpillars was fed oak flowers, the other
oak leaves. Thus, there were a total of eight
treatment groups (4 environments 2 diets).
Refer to the accompanying figure. Recall that eggs from the same female were exposed to each of the
eight treatments used. This aspect of the experimental design tested which of the following
The differences are genetic. A female will either produce all flowerlike caterpillars or all twig-like caterpillars.
A controlled experiment ____.
includes at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment
Which of the following best describes a model organism?
It is well studied, it is easy to grow, and results are widely applicable.
A carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond(s) with other atoms?
are insoluble in water
Saturated fatty acids ____.
are the principal molecules in lard and butter
All of the following contain amino acids EXCEPT ____.
Which of the following includes all of the pyrimidines found in RNA and DNA?
cytosine, uracil, and thymine
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?
Bacteria and Archaea
When a cell is in equilibrium with its environment, which of the following occurs for substances that can diffuse through the cell?
There is random movement of substances into and out of the cell.
Which of the following is true of osmosis?
In osmosis, water moves across a membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher solute concentration.
A patient was involved a serious accident and lost a large quantity of blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, distilled water—equal to the volume of blood lost—is added to the blood directly via one of his veins. What will be the most probable result of this transfusion?
The patient's red blood cells will swell and possibly burst because the blood has become hypotonic compared to
The sodium-potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because it ____.
contributes to the membrane potential
A bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through phagocytosis will be digested by enzymes contained in ____.
For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?
The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment.
A chemical reaction that has a positive Delta G is best described as ____.
Which of the following is true when comparing an uncatalyzed reaction to the same reaction with a catalyst?
The catalyzed reaction will have the same change in free energy.
Succinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of succinate to fumarate. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles succinate but cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase. Increasing the ratio of succinate to malonic acid reduces the inhibitory effect of malonic acid. Based on this information, which of the following is correct?
Succinate is the substrate, and fumarate is the product.
Activity of various enzymes at various temperatures (a) and at various pH (b). Which temperature and pH profile curves on the graphs were most likely generated from analysis of an enzyme from a human stomach where conditions are strongly acid?
curves 1 and 4
Succinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of succinate to fumarate. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles succinate but cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase. Increasing the ratio of succinate to malonic acid reduces the inhibitory effect of malonic acid. What is malonic acid's role with respect to succinate dehydrogenase? Malonic acid ____.
is a competitive inhibitor
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are ____.
6 CO2, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to ____.
act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into
the intermembrane space, the result is the ____.
creation of a proton-motive force
Glycolysis is active when cellular energy levels are ____; the regulatory enzyme that stimulates this process is called phosphofructokinase, and it is ____ by ATP.
The process of photosynthesis probably originated ____.
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light. What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?
Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.
In the thylakoid membranes, the pigment molecules in a light-harvesting complex ____.
absorb and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll
In mitochondria, chemiosmosis moves protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis moves protons from the ____.
stroma to the thylakoid space
Testosterone, a steroid hormone, functions inside a cell by ____.
binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes
Protein kinase is an enzyme that ____.
activates or inactivates other proteins by adding a phosphate group to them
Scientists isolate cells in various phases of the cell cycle. They find a group of cells that have 1.5 times more DNA than G1 phase cells. The cells of this group are ____.
in the S phase of the cell cycle
To identify the molecule that accepts CO2, Calvin and Benson manipulated the carbon-fixation cycle by either cutting off CO2 or cutting off light from cultures of photosynthetic algae. They then measured the concentrations of various metabolites immediately following the manipulation. How would these experiments help identify the CO2 acceptor?
The CO2 acceptor concentration would increase when the CO2 is cut off, but decrease when the light is cut off.
In the figure at left, G1 is represented by which numbered part(s) of the cycle?
I or V
In the figure at left, which number represents DNA synthesis?
The data were obtained from a study of the length of time spent in each phase of the cell cycle by cells of three eukaryotic organisms designated beta, delta, and gamma. Minutes Spent in Cell Cycle Phases Of the following, the best conclusion concerning the difference between the S phases for beta and gamma is that ____.
gamma contains more DNA than beta
The human X and Y chromosomes ____.
include genes that determine an individual's sex
How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that are in prophase of meiosis I? They have ____.
half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.
Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?
Homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other.
Which of the following can occur by the process of meiosis but not mitosis?
Diploid cells form haploid cells.
In meiosis, homologous chromosomes are separated during ____.
Centromeres split and sister chromatids migrate to opposite poles in meiosis ____.
The bulldog ant has a diploid number of two chromosomes. Therefore, following meiosis, each daughter cell will have a single chromosome. Diversity in this species may be generated by mutations and ____.
crossing over and independent assortment
Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants with a heterozygous genotype?
2 and 3
Which of the boxes corresponds to the homozygous recessive
In some parts of Africa, the frequency of heterozygosity for the sickle-cell anemia allele is unusually high, presumably because this reduces the frequency of malaria. Such a relationship is related to which of the following?
Darwin's explanation of natural selection
Which of the following is the meaning of the chromosome theory of inheritance as expressed in the early twentieth century?
Mendelian genes are at specific loci on the chromosome and, in turn, segregate during meiosis.
Of the following human aneuploidies, which is the one that generally has the most severe impact on the health of the individual?
47, trisomy 21
Cytosine makes up 42% of the nucleotides in a sample of DNA from an organism. Approximately what percentage of the nucleotides in this sample will be thymine?
A new DNA strand elongates only in the 5' to 3' direction because ____.
DNA polymerase can add nucleotides only to the free 3' end
After the first replication was observed in their experiments testing the nature of DNA replication, Meselson and Stahl could be confident of which of the following conclusions?
Replication is semi-conservative.
According to the central dogma, what molecule should go in the blank? (both blanks are the same) DNA is transcribed into ______ and then _______ is translated Proteins
A particular triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is AAA. The anticodon on the tRNA that binds the mRNA codon is ____.
According to the lac operon model proposed by Jacob and Monod, what is predicted to occur if the operator is removed from the operon?
The lac operon would be transcribed continuously.
Which of the following mechanisms is/are used to coordinate the expression of multiple, related genes in eukaryotic cells?
The genes share a single common enhancer, which allows appropriate activators to turn on their transcription at the same time.
HIV is inactivated in the laboratory after a few minutes of sitting at room temperature, but the flu virus is still active after sitting for several hours. What are the practical consequences of these findings?
The flu virus can be transmitted more easily from person to person than HIV
Which of the following problems with animal cloning might result in premature death of the clones?
abnormal gene regulation due to variant methylation (epigenetic differences)
If each of the water molecules in the diagram had all of its potential hydrogen bonding sites filled, like the water molecule in the center of the diagram, what would be the total number of water molecules represented?
The water molecules in the diagram are attracted to the cell walls of water-conducting cells by adhesion due to hydrogen bonds. What conclusion is supported by this information?
Cell walls of plants contain oxygen and/or nitrogen and are therefore polar.
In living systems molecules involved in hydrogen bonding almost always contain either oxygen or nitrogen or both. How do you explain this phenomenon?
Oxygen and nitrogen are elements with very high attractions for their electrons.
High temperatures or various chemical treatments will denature a protein causing it to lose its shape and hence its ability to function. If a denatured protein remains dissolved it often renatures when its normal physical or chemical environment is restored as shown in the diagram below. Which statement best explains the connection between the sequence and subcomponents of a protein and its properties?
The specific shape of a protein is naturally
known to the original sequence of amino acids so the protein will function properly after renaturation.
The accompanying table represents the results of an experiment where the effects of pH buffers on an enzyme found in saliva (amylase) were studied. A spectrophotometer set at 500nm was used to measure absorbance at the various pH levels every 20 sec for 2 min. The higher absorbance values would indicate greater enzyme activity. All experiments were conducted at the same temperature. Which statement correctly identifies the result that the optimum pH for amylase function is 7?
The pH with the highest absorbance values would indicate the optimum pH for amylase since this pH does not affect the structure or function of the protein.
Gaucher disease is the most common of lipid storage diseases in humans. It is caused by a deficiency of an enzyme necessary for lipid metabolism. This leads to a collection of fatty material in organs of the body including the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, and bone marrow. Using your knowledge of the structure of eukaryotic cells, identify the statement below that best explains how internal membranes and the organelles of cells would be involved in Gaucher disease.
The lysosomes lack sufficient amounts of enzymes necessary for the metabolism of lipids.
Volume Surface Area
Cell 1 9.3 mm3 26.5 mm2
Cell 2 12.2 mm3 37.1 mm2
Cell 3 17.6 mm3 40.6 mm2
Using data from the table above, select the best explanation for why that cell will be able to eliminate waste most efficiently?
Cell 2 since it has the highest surface area-to-volume ratio which facilitates the exchange of materials between a cell and its environment.
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