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45 terms

Gross Anatomy pt. 2

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thalamus
relay center, smell is the only sense does not go thru here, largest portion of diencephalon
projection fiber
axon of neuron in a region of the brain whose terminals form synapses with neurons in another region
lateral geniculate nucleus
nucleus of thalamus, receive fibers from retina, projects to primary visual cortex
medial geniculate nucleus
nucleus of thalamus, receive fibers from auditory, projects to auditory cortex
ventrolateral nucleus
nucleus of thalamus receives input from cerebellum and sends axons to primary motor cortex
hypothalamus
group of nuclei beneath thalamus, controls autonomic nervous system, controls pituitary gland, organize behavior-fighting, feeding, fleeing, mating
cerebellum
little brain, important component of motor system, under developed=autism
cerebellar cortex
cortex covers surface of cerebellum
deep cerebellar nuclei
nuceli located within cerebellar hemispheres, receive projections from cerebellar cortex and sends to other parts of brain
cerebellar peduncle
footing, little feet, perch, resting area, gives support to cerebellum hanging off back of brain
pons
bridge, important in sleep and arousal, neurotransmitter system, modulate neural activity, alertness, vigilance, sleep, mood, how brain functions
medulla oblongata
includes nuclei control vital functions-cardiovascular, respiration, skeletal muscle tone
spinal cord
cord of nervous tissues extends from medulla and down
spinal root
fiber network combo of sensory/motor info, occur in pairs fuse and form a spinal nerve
cauda equina
bundle of spinal roots located underneath end of spinal cord, horses tail
caudal block
anesthesia and paralysis of lower part of body produced by injection into csf surrounding equina
dorsal root
afferent, sensory, info coming in
ventral root
efferent, motor, info leaving, exit
cranial nerves
12 pairs of peripheral nerves, attached directly to the brain, serve motor functions to head, neck, shoulders
somatic nervous system
part of PNS, controls movement of skeletal muscles, transmits somatosensory info to CNS, things we can control, react to consciously
autonomic nervous system
controls body vegetative functions, unconscious level, hormone release, breathing, heartbeat, blood pressur
sympathetic division
get body ready for action, secretion of sweat glands, adrenaline, epinephrin
sympathetic ganglia
synapses between neurons of sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic divsion
brings body back to resting normal state, homeostasis, involved with increases in the supply of stored energy
blood brain barrier
tightly packed together, things cannot pass thru easily, must be small, regulates the chemicals that can enter the CNS from the blood, helps the CNS maintain proper composition of fluids inside/outside the nerurons
diencephalon
region of forebrain, surrounds 3rd ventricle, contains thalamus and hypothalamus
anterior pituitary gland
master gland, hormone control- sends releasing to blood stream, secretions controlled by hypothalamic hormones
nucleus
brain collection of cell bodies unified in function
neurosecretory cell
neuron secretes substances or hormone like
posterior pituitary gland
endocrine gland contains hormone secreting terminal butons of axons whose cell bodies lie within hypothalamus
midbrain
region of brain surrounds cerebral aqueduct, the central of 3 major divisions of brain
tectum
roof, dorsal part of midbrain, includes superior/inferior colliculi
superior colliculi
protrusions on top of midbrain, part of visual system, heads where your eyes want to be, visual reflexes, reactions to moving stimuli
inferior colliculi
directs where you turn your head to orient yourself to a sound
tegmentum
covering, ventral part of midbrain, includes gray matter, reticular formation, red nucleus, substantia nigra
reticular formation
large network of neural tissue located in the central part of brain stem, plays a part in sleep, arousal attn, movement, vital reflexes
periaqueductal gray matter
controls muscle group, sends signals to muscles according to emotional state, contains neural circuits involved in species typical behaviors-fighting, mating, involved in sensitivity to pain
red nucleus
large nucleus of midbrain, receives input from cerebellum and motor cortex, sends axons to motor neurons in spinal cord
substantia nigra
dark stained region of tegmentum contains neurons that communicate with basal ganglia
hindbrain
includes metencephalon and myelencephalon most bottom part of brain
olfactory nerve
nasal cavity, smell
optic nerve
visual, retina-> thalamus, 3 other nerves control vision
vestibulocochlear nerve
all sensory hearing, sense of balance
vagus nerve
neck, shoulders, motor info to big organs-stomach, intestine farthest extended into body
facial nerve
big nerve, tongue, taste