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Midterm Review - Living Environment
This is a large set the will help you review most of what you will be expected to know for the midterm exam.
Terms in this set (101)
monosaccharides (simple sugars)
What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
one glycerol and three fatty acids
What are the building blocks of lipids?
What are the building blocks of proteins?
What are the building blocks for nucleic acids?
Fats, oils and waxes belong to what group of organic molecules?
What type of organic molecules are composed of chains of amino acids?
Hemoglobin, insulin, albumin, and maltase are examples of what type of organic molecule?
What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrates molecules?
Proteins are digested into ________________ before they are transported to cells.
simple sugars (glucose)
Starches are digested into ________________ before they are transported to cells.
Photosynthesis is a form of _________________ nutrition.
All the chemical reactions required to sustain life is called
illness or death
A disruption of homeostasis results in...
The maintenance of a stable internal environment for metabolism is called
The removal of waste products produced from metabolism is the live function
The life function that controls and coordinates the life activities of an organism is called
Cell membranes allow some molecules to pass through while blocking others this characteristic is called
carbon dioxide, oxygen, water
examples of molecules that can pass through a cell membrane by simple diffusion are
Starch, proteins, lipids (fats, oils and waxes)
Examples of molecules that cannot pass through a cell membrane by simple diffusion are
Active transport requires the use of.....
High to Low
Diffusion is a form of passive transport and moves molecules from an area of __________ concentration to an area of ___________ concentraiton
a concentration gradiant
What must exist for diffusion to occur?
Low to High
Active transport is used to move molecules from an area of __________ concentration to an area of ___________ concentraiton and requires energy.
What organelle is used by cells to release energy during cellular respiration to make ATP?
The energy released during cellular respiration comes from the break down of _________________.
The fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane consists of a lipid bi-layer with embedded _______________.
Mitosis is a process that divides the _____________ so that the cell can divide.
Cytokinesis is the division of the _________________.
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
The four stages of mitosis are?
Cytokinesis occurs after _______________ has occurred.
Unicellular organisms relay on their organelles to maintain
When the concentration of water outside a cell is higher than the concentration of water inside the cytoplasm the environment is _________________.
When the concentration or water outside a cell is lower than the concentration of water inside the cytoplasm the environment is _________________.
When the concentration or water outside a cell is equal to the concentration of water inside the cytoplasm the environment is _________________.
When a cell is placed into a solution that is hypotonic water will diffuse ______________ the cell.
When a cell is placed into a solution that is hypertonic water will diffuse ______________ the cell.
maintain its water balance
When a cell is placed into a solution that is isotonic the cell will _________________.
What level of organization is missing from the sequence?
cell - tissue - ________ - organ system - organism
chloroplasts, cell walls, a large central vacuole
What cell structures do plant cell have that animal cells do not have?
They use a lot of energy
Why do muscle cells have a lot of mitochondria?
protein synthesis occurs at ribosomes
What is the function of ribosomes?
Two glucose molecules covalently bonded together make a
What indicator is used to test for the presence of glucose?
Water will diffuse out of the cytoplasm causing the cell membrane to shrink away from the cell wall.
When salt solution is added to a slide with red onion cells what will happen to the red onion cells?
The _______________ determines the function of a protein.
When an protein loses its shape is said that the protein has ______________ .
The ____________________ controls what enters and leaves a cell.
Plant cells have a cell membrane just inside the _______________.
temperature and pH
Enzymes are optimized to work at a specific _____________ and ________________.
enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, temperature and pH
What are the four factors that effect the rate of enzyme action?
Cell that have a nucleus and specialized organelles are
Cell that lack a nucleus are
Eubacteria and Archeabacteria
What kingdoms have prokaryotic organisms?
Protist, fungi, plant and animal kingdoms
What kingdoms have eukaryotic organisms?
Chromosomes are found in the ________________ of a eukaryotic cell
A substrate fits the active site of an enzyme like a ___________ fits a lock.
the fine adjustment knob
Which adjustment knob do you use under high power?
What molecule is starch synthesized from?
A possible answer to a scientific question is called a
carbon dioxide and water
The reactants need for photosynthesis are
Organisms that can survive without oxygen are ______________.
Red and Blue wavelengths
Chlorophyll absorbs what color wavelengths of light?
Chlorophyll reflects what color wavelengths of light
Human muscle cells usually do aerobic respiration but can switch to ________________ when they run out or oxygen.
The two types of fermentation are lactic acid fermentation and ________________ fermentation.
lactic acid fermentation
Human muscle cells can switch to what type of fermentation when they run out of oxygen?
The energy released from breaking down glucose during cellular respiration is used to make ___________.
During anaerobic respiration ______ ATP are produced from breaking down one glucose molecule.
During aerobic respiration _______ ATP are produced from breaking down one glucose molecule.
The daughter cell produced from the process of mitosis and cytokinesis are genetically _______________.
During asexual reproduction all the genetic material comes from ________ parent.
During cytokinesis in animal cells the cell membrane ____________ in to divide the cell.
During cytokinesis in plant cells a ______________ forms to divide the cell
A reading below 7 on the pH scale is ___________.
A reading above 7 on the pH scale is ____________.
The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being ______________.
The form of asexual reproduction where a offspring grows from the parent organism by mitosis is called ____________.
There are ________ millimeters (mm) in a centimeter (cm).
The part of the microscope that controls the amount of light that passes through the specimen is called the _______________.
chromatography (paper chromatography)
One technique used to separate pigment molecules is called
stains makes cell structures more visible
Why are stains often used on slides of living cells when viewing them with a light microscope?
One millimeter equals ___________ micrometers.
field of view
To measure an object under a microscope to you the diameter of the _________________ to estimate the size of an object in micrometers.
1500 micrometers (3000 divided by 2)
The field of view is 3000 micrometers and two cells fit across that field of view. How big is each cell in micrometers?
eyepiece x objective lens = Total Magnifigation
How do you find the total magnification of a compound light microscope?
Benedic's solution is use used as an indicator for the presence of _______________.
Lugol's iodine is used as an indicator of the presence of _______________.
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids
What are the four types of organic molecules?
Starch and glucose are both what type of organic molecule?
Enzymes are an example of what type of organic molecule?
Fats, oils and waxes
Lipids include ____________, _____________ and _____________.
Osmosis it the diffusion of _________ across a membrane.
While looking through a light microscope when the slide is moved to the right on the stage the specimen moves to the ____________ in the field of view.
What process converts the energy stored in food to energy available for use by the organism?
When you heart rate and breathing rate increase to maintain the concentration of oxygen in you blood at a certain level this is an example of ____________________.
When you sweat to help cool down you body temperature this is an example of __________________.
When your muscles contract rapidly to produce extra heat, this is an example of _________________.
When your body releases hormones to adjust the concentration of glucose in your blood, this is an example of _______________.
1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function of living things.
3. All cells come from preexisting cells.
The three parts of the cell theory are....
Plant cell have a cell wall just outside the _______________.
Do plant cell have both cell membranes and cell walls?
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