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15 terms

Holt, Rinehart, and Winston Modern Biology Vocabulary Chapter 10

The given vocabulary and definitions for chapter 10 of Modern Biology by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston
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Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
Transcription
the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template
Translation
the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
Protein Synthesis
formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA, carried by mRNA
Ribose
a five-carbon sugar present in RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
a single-stranded RNA molecule encodes information to make a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
an organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
folded single-stranded RNA, transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein
RNA Polymerase
an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template
Promoter
a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene
Termination Signal
a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
Genetic Code
the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
Codon
in DNA and mRNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
Anticodon
a region of a tRNA molecule that consists of a sequence of three bases that is complementary to an mRNA codon
Genome
the complete genetic material contained in an individual or species