Field of study that links the brain and other aspects of the nervous system to cognitive processing and observable behavior.
the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language.
Look for people with brain damage while still alive and document their behavior. After death, examie brain for lesions areas with tissue damage.
MRI ( magnetic resonance imaging)
provides still image revealing the structure of the brain. Computer produces 3-D image of brain.
PET (positron emission tomography)
To track glucose comsumption, mildy radiosactive glucose substance is injected into person
EEG ( elctroencephalogram)
Recording of the electrical frequencies and intensities of the brain. Can be used to study sleep and awake states. EEG waves are averaged over a large number of trails (Ex. 100) to obtain and event-related potential (ERP). Information not well localized/specified but is good measure of change in the brain.
Changes in brain take place as a result of increased glucose and oxygen consumption in the brain. Can pinpoint localized activity during a given task
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
Based on oxygen consumption. Placed in a MRI machine (magnetic field produces changes in oxygen atoms). More active brain areas=more oxygen. Less invasive then PET, but costly machine.
outer layer of hemispheres. the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
motor funtion (associated with damage in parkinson's disease) Large clusters of neurons, located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex, that work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements.
Memory function, in particular formation of new memories rather then retaining old memories also important in spatial memory. * Koraskoff's syndrome- deteriorations of hippocampus
Survival instincts (fighting, fleeing, eating mating); controls endocrine system; role in controlling consciousness.
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Regulation of consciousness (sleep, wakefulness, aroudal, attention)
Connects forebrain to spinal cord
Brain stem= hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, hindbrain
Controls heart activity, breathing, and sweating. Point of fiber crossover from body to brain (where spinal cord enters skull and joins brain)
Controls body coordination and balance. situated above the medulla oblongata and beneath the cerebrum in humans
Part of forebrain. Enables us to think, plan, coordinate thoughts and actions, use language (makes us human)
Lobes of the Brain
4 lobes divid the 2 cerebral hemispheres. 1. Fontal 2. Parietal 3. Temporal 4. Occipital
Opposite side. Motor information from left hemisphere directs motor responese to right side of body.
Dense area of neural fibers connecting two hemispheres to each other, allows for communication.
This half of the brain specializes in perception of physical environment, art, nonverbal communication, music & spiritual aspects. It receives information from and controls the opposite side of the body.
This half of the brain generally specializes in analysis, calculation, problem solving, verbal communication, interpretation, language, reading & writing. It receives info and controls opposite of the body.
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them. results in the loss of communication between the 2 hemispheres.
Primary Motor Cortex
In frontal lobe. Planning, control, and execution of movement (contralaterally)
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
In parietal lobe. Receives info about pressure, texture, temp, and pain
Caused by stroke. Blood flow to brain is suddenly disrupted. Results in loss in cognitive functioning.