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47 terms

Cognitive Neuroscience

John Jay College. Psy 200: Intro to congnitive psychology Prof. Williams
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Cognitive Neuroscience
Field of study that links the brain and other aspects of the nervous system to cognitive processing and observable behavior.

the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language.
The Brain
Organ in our bodies that most directly controls our thoughts, emotions and motivations
Nervous System
Basis for our ability to perceive, adapt to, to interact with the world around us.
Postmortem Studies
Look for people with brain damage while still alive and document their behavior. After death, examie brain for lesions areas with tissue damage.
MRI ( magnetic resonance imaging)
provides still image revealing the structure of the brain. Computer produces 3-D image of brain.
PET (positron emission tomography)
To track glucose comsumption, mildy radiosactive glucose substance is injected into person
EEG ( elctroencephalogram)
Recording of the electrical frequencies and intensities of the brain. Can be used to study sleep and awake states. EEG waves are averaged over a large number of trails (Ex. 100) to obtain and event-related potential (ERP). Information not well localized/specified but is good measure of change in the brain.
Metabolic Imaging
Changes in brain take place as a result of increased glucose and oxygen consumption in the brain. Can pinpoint localized activity during a given task
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
Based on oxygen consumption. Placed in a MRI machine (magnetic field produces changes in oxygen atoms). More active brain areas=more oxygen. Less invasive then PET, but costly machine.
Anatomy of Brain
Brain is divided into 3 major parts. Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain.
Cerebral cortex
outer layer of hemispheres. the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Basal ganglia
motor funtion (associated with damage in parkinson's disease) Large clusters of neurons, located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex, that work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements.
Limbic system
Emotions, motivation, memory, learning. 3 interconnected structures.
Amygdala
Plays a role in emotion, anger and aggression
Septum
Plays a role in anger and fear.
Hippocampus
Memory function, in particular formation of new memories rather then retaining old memories also important in spatial memory. * Koraskoff's syndrome- deteriorations of hippocampus
Hypothalamus
Survival instincts (fighting, fleeing, eating mating); controls endocrine system; role in controlling consciousness.
Thalamus
Relays incoming sensory information to appropriate cortex area; consists of many nuclei
Midbrain
Controlas eyes movement, hearing, consciousness, attention, coordination.
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Regulation of consciousness (sleep, wakefulness, aroudal, attention)
Brain Stem
Connects forebrain to spinal cord
Brain stem= hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, hindbrain
Hindbrain
the posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem
Medulla Oblongate
Controls heart activity, breathing, and sweating. Point of fiber crossover from body to brain (where spinal cord enters skull and joins brain)
Pons
Relay station contains neurral fibers that pass signals form one part of brain to the other.
Cerebellum
Controls body coordination and balance. situated above the medulla oblongata and beneath the cerebrum in humans
Cerebral Cortex
Part of forebrain. Enables us to think, plan, coordinate thoughts and actions, use language (makes us human)
Lobes of the Brain
4 lobes divid the 2 cerebral hemispheres. 1. Fontal 2. Parietal 3. Temporal 4. Occipital
Hemispheres
Right and left hemisphere.
Contralateral control
Opposite side. Motor information from left hemisphere directs motor responese to right side of body.
Ispilateral control
Same side. Odor to right nostril goes primarily to right side of brain.
Corpus Callosum
Dense area of neural fibers connecting two hemispheres to each other, allows for communication.
Aphasia
Loss of speech production.
Right Hemisphere
This half of the brain specializes in perception of physical environment, art, nonverbal communication, music & spiritual aspects. It receives information from and controls the opposite side of the body.
Left Hemisphere
This half of the brain generally specializes in analysis, calculation, problem solving, verbal communication, interpretation, language, reading & writing. It receives info and controls opposite of the body.
Split-brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them. results in the loss of communication between the 2 hemispheres.
Frontal Lobe
Higher thought process, such as abstract reasoning.
Parietral Lobe
Somatosensory processing (touch, pain ,tempertuare, limb position)
Temporal Lobe
Auditory processing
Occipital Lobe
Visual processing
Optic Chiasma
the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
Primary Motor Cortex
In frontal lobe. Planning, control, and execution of movement (contralaterally)
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
In parietal lobe. Receives info about pressure, texture, temp, and pain
Vasular Disorder
Caused by stroke. Blood flow to brain is suddenly disrupted. Results in loss in cognitive functioning.
Brain Tumor
a.k.a. Neoplasms. Can occur in white or grey matter. Benign or Malignant
Benign
not dangerous to health
Malignant
dangerous to health
Head Injury
Closed-head skull remains intact. Open-head skull penetrated. Loss o consciousness= Possible damage to brain.