chapter 8 information systems lifecycle and project management

Terms in this set (91)

the first step in project management is development of the project plan - one of the most crucial elements of the plan is the definition of the scope of the project. Identifying project scope identifies the boundaries of the project. For example, the scope of development and implementation of an order entry system would include considerations of interfacing with the clinical record, laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy systems but would not include concerns with interfacing with a release of information tracking system. In the case of implementing a computerized provider order entry (CPOE)module for the clinical record system, the team would include physicians, nurses, and other care providers who would be users of the system as well as those individuals representing the systems and functional areas needed to bring the project to successful completion.
A second crucial component of the planning phase is identification of project deliverables and activities. A deliverable is a tangible work product such as a computer code, documents, system specifications, a database design.good project management relies on breaking down the project into smaller and smaller activities. Frequently, a tool called the work breakdown structure is used to break the project into smaller and smaller activities. A significant part of project planning includes identification of project deliverables, activities, and resources necessary for efficient project completion. These elements directly contribute to the development of the project budget. After deliverables, activities, resources, and budget are established for the program, a project schedule must be developed. This schedule incorporates project activities and personnel, identifying who will perform the activity and when the activity will be completed. Several project management software programs are available. Most of these programs include project scheduling tools such as Gantt charts and other tools such as flowcharts and visuals to help track the deliverables and progress of the project.
Describes all primitive-level data structures and data elements within a system
Central repository for all information about the database
Functions as a catalog for identifying the nature of all the data in a system
Central resource for ensuring the use of standard definitions for data elements and data structures

How is the data dictionary compiled?
Style used depends largely on the procedures established
Information system department preference
Usually a unique notation for each component

Visible Analyst Workbench
Project - name of the related project
Label - unique data name
Entry type - type of data entity
Description - used for more complete description of data entity
Alias - Other names by which the data entity is identified
Values and meanings - Notation depends on the data entity type

Why is the development of a data dictionary important?
It provides a central repository of standard terminology.
It helps reduce data redundancy.
It increases data integrity.
It helps to fully document information system.
It helps to decrease confusion among users and analysts about purpose and functions of system.

the typical data dictionary includes information about processes, data flows, data stores, and data elements and a system. For example, in a data dictionary, the data element gender used in a master patient index would contain information about the data elements data type, its length, its range, allowed values, and meanings. In this case, the data element gender has a data type of alphanumeric, its length would be one character, and allowed value would be - F, M, O, and U. The meaning would be included as a notation indicating that gender referred to the patient's gender and that am meant male and asked female, oh meant other. It would also be possible to add the category of unknown, U.
Used principally to illustrate the logical design of information system databases
Composed of three categories of items:
1.Entities - objects that make up the data in database
2.Relations - links or ties that exist between or among entities
3.Attributes - describe both entities and relations

Why is the ERD important?
ERD is an important tool for development of a logical data model of system.
Poorly designed logical structures cause inefficient and ineffective databases.

an example of a relation in the record completeness review system is the relation between a patient record (and entity) and a deficiency (and entity). In this relation, a patient directed can have many deficiencies (for example, there may be several physicians, each having a deficiency, or the wreckage may have several content or signature deficiencies). Another example is the relation between a physician (entity) and a record content/signature deficiency (entity). In this relation, a physician can have many content/signature deficiencies in a number of patient records (for example, have deficiencies for more than one record) to say.

Attributes describe both entities and relations - attributes may be thought of as the data elements that need to be captured to describe an entity fully. An example the attributes of the deficiency card in the manual record completeness review system include patient number, physician name, position number, and list of deficiencies. The attributes of the entity (physician) would include physician number and physician name.

In an ERD, entity and relation symbols are connected by straight lines. In addition to indicating a relation among entities, it is important to indicate how many frequently the occurrence can exist at any given point in time. Each patient directed can have more than one (or many) data deficiencies the reverse of this is that each data deficiency can relate to only one patient record.

In an EHR system, the record deficiency data are posted as a "to do" list for the care provider and tracked by the HIM professional.
a logical question that should arise after studying the various structured analysis tool is, "how are the products that are derived from each of these tools integrated?" In other words, how other charts, diagrams, dictionaries, and tables tied together to derive a coherent picture of system design? These development tools a computerized to improve the efficiency, accuracy, and completeness of the system development process. These computerized systems are called computer aided software engineering (also referred to as computer aided system engineering), or CASE, tools.

CASE toolsprovide a mechanism for the electronic development of systems analysis aids such as structure charts, DFD's, ERD's, and data dictionaries. Instead of developing charts and diagrams manually, the analysts can use a computer program with a graphic interface to assist in development. CASE tools do not automatically develop the various charts and diagrams. Rather, the designer interacts with the CAFC program to select the appropriate symbols, connectors, and labels and electronically draw the proper diagram. All diagrams, graphs, tables, and dictionaries that are developed are stored electronically.

CASE toolshelp design is relate their work electronically by organizing information about a system in a central repository. The central repository may contain data models, logic definitions, and functional models and may screen and report definitions. After it is developed, designers can query the repository for information about the system.

if new processes are added - models, graphs, tables, and dictionaries can be reused or easily updated.
prototyping a system usually has the following primary goals: to build the Prototype of an information system quickly
to involve the user heavily in the model development - initially the system Prototype can be a preliminary model of the final system, but after several iterations of development, the Prototype can evolve into the final system - it is not usually done at the depth required in the system development life cycle.
after input and output prototyping is completed system features are gradually added (most important functions of a system are typically incorporated first)
final stage of prototyping is generation of the completed prototype system - Prototype is tested and evaluated and if changes to the Prototype need to be made this system is updated and evaluated again.

Prototype and is gaining popularity for a number of reasons:
provides immediate feedback to uses in a format that has meaning to them - users assume responsibility for approval of design and function capabilities
Prototype skin stimulates the dynamics of the real world (it is difficult in a DFT to access the stress and cured by an emergency department physician in the urgency as she or he attempts to locate information about a drug regimen and a patient's file)
a final benefit provided by Prototype thing is faster delivery of products than that provided by the traditional method of systems analysis
several other factors have contributed to the increased use of Prototype method:
advances in technology have made Prototype impossible
there has been growth in prototyping tools
users have access to and experience with relational databases on their computers and may be able to do some initial design/use work to speed the formal process

some critics believe that in the haste to develop a product quickly, insufficient effort may be devoted to the analyst process - prototyping however can be integrated into the system development life cycle.