78 terms

Introduction to the New Testament and Gospel Portraits

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How many books are in the Old Testament?
46
How many books are in the New Testament?
27
Gospel
Comes from the Anglo-Saxon word "god-spell", meaning good tidings or good news
What are the 4 sections of the New Testament?
Gospels, Acts, Letters, Revelations
Gospels
4
How the Good News was revealed by Jesus
Acts
1
How the Good News was preached to the world
Letters
21
How the Good News was lived out by early Christians
Revelations
1
How early Christians were persecuted
Which are the "synoptic Gospels"?
Matthew, Mark, and Luke
Views the story of Jesus' life, teachings, and death in a similar way
Synoptic
Greek, "viewed together"
What sets the John Gospel apart from the synoptic Gospels?
It's in biographical detail and literary style
Recounts SOME details of Jesus' life
Much more figurative and spiritual
Christology
Worshipped > told
True or False: We have original text of the Gospel.
False
We have copies of copies (including Ryland's Fragment) but nothing more
What are the stages of Gospel development?
Lived Stage, Preached Stage, Written Stage
Lived Stage
What Jesus said and did
30-33 CE
Preached Stage
What was preserved orally
33-70 CE
Written Stage
What was finally written, edited, and arranged
80-150 CE
Symbolic Stage 1: Lived
OCEAN
All the shells laying on the ocean floor represent what Jesus said and did
Symbolic Stage 2: Preached
SHORE
Some of the shells that wash up on shore represent what was preached and passed on in oral tradition
Symbolic Stage 3: Written
VASE
Some of the best shells were selected and placed in a vase, representing the stories that stand out and what we have in the Bible
How are all the Gospels related?
They tell the same Passion story
Q
German word "Quelle" meaning source
List of sayings by Jesus
No source has ever been found
Type of Savior: Mark
Suffering Savior
Type of Savior: Matthew
Teaching Savior
Type of Savior: Luke
Compassionate Savior
Type of Savior: John
Life-giving Savior
Symbol: Mark
Desert Lion
Theme: Mark
Resurrection
Background: Mark
Written in Rome, time of Roman peace (Pax Romana)
Good roads/transportation systems, common language, spiritual hunger
Opening: Mark
"A voice crying out in the desert"
John the Baptist & adult Jesus
Author: Mark
Young man, missionary, Gentile, knew Peter and Paul (Barnabus' cousin, Paul's coworker, Peter's disciple)
Date: Mark
70 CE
27 years after the death of Jesus
Oldest Gospel
Audience: Mark
Gentile Christians of Rome who were being persecuted
Emphasis: Mark
1. Jesus is a man of action
2. Jesus shows emotion
3. Jesus is seen as the suffering Messiah
4. Jesus is the Christ
5. Jesus is the son of God
Special Features: Mark
1. Begins with John the Baptist
2. Explains Jewish customs and words
3. Uses a form of rhetorical questioning
4. Has different endings
5. Shortest Gospel (667 verses)
6. Hardest on the Apostles
7. Has 2 parts which lead up to a profession of faith
8. Contains the most events (action-packed)
9. Most chronological
10. Records most miracles
11. Other Gospels quote all but 31 verses from Mark
Symbol: Matthew
Man
Theme: Matthew
Incarnation
Background: Matthew
Antioch, Syria (north of Palestine)
Opening: Matthew
Genealogy of Jesus
Shows line of descendants from Abraham (father) to David (great king)
Author: Matthew
Jewish scribe
Maybe Christian convert
Not the Apostle who was a tax collector
Date: Matthew
85 CE after destruction of Jerusalem and temple
Audience: Matthew
Sizable Jewish community in Syria
Emphasis: Matthew
1. Jesus is the Jewish Messiah and teacher, often called Rabbi or Teacher, and is compared to Moses
2. Thoughtful and reflective
3. He came to bring the "kingdom of God" or "reign of God", and goes back to when Israel first wanted a king, but Samuel said Yahweh is their only king
Concern for others and absolute faith in God
Let go of lesser gods and let God be the only god
Special Features: Matthew
1. Uses Old Testament passages to show how Jesus fulfills Jewish prophecies (fits in with Moses, Moses brought to fulfillment, Herod putting to death innocent boys like Pharaoh, doesn't go to mountain for authority but preaches from the mount with authority)
2. Highly structured (Chiasmus)
What are the events in the Chiasmus in order?
Promise of God: Emmanuel, "God is with you"
Birth
Baptism at Jordan
Temptation in the desert
TEACHINGS
Temptation at the cross
Baptism at death
Rebirth/resurrection
Promise: "I will always be with you"
Symbol: Luke
Sacrificial Ox
Theme: Luke
Redemption
Background: Luke
Written in Greece, Jews are not being persecuted
Opening: Luke
Zechariah (father of John the Baptist) sacrificing in the temple
Author: Luke
Physician, Gentile, knows Paul and Mark, not an eyewitness, Greek convert
Date: Luke
75 CE
Audience: Luke
Gentile Christians in Greece, to help those who are already Christian to better understand their faith and roots
Emphasis: Luke
1. Gospel of mercy and forgiveness
2. Gospel of women (women have a prominent role, one that puts them on equal par with men)
3. Jesus is a healer
3a. Soul -> forgiveness and self worth (Good Samaritan, Prodigal Son, Good Thief)
3b. Body -> miracles (curing lame, blind, and lepers)
4. Gospel of eternal salvation: Jesus = prophet, bringing God's Word to all people
5. Gospel of the Holy Spirit (Jesus becomes more human through the HS, HS leads him to be tempted and anoints him with the power to resist, HS sends him to preach, HS encourages his disciples to spread the Good News after the resurrection)
Symbol: John
Eagle
Theme: John
Ascension
Background: John
Probably written from Antioch
Opening: John
Jesus comes from and goes back to heaven
Author: John
"Beloved disciple"; probably not actually John, but his community who was very prayerful
Date: John
90-100 CE
Audience: John
All Christians in Asia Minor
Emphasis: John
1. Jesus is God and the Word of God (starts by telling us who Jesus is: the Son of God)
2. Jesus is strong and powerful (less historically accurate, more reflective)
3. Jesus came to bring fullness of life
4. Jesus is divine
Special Features: John
1. Begins with eternity to fit with the theme
2. Uses "mistake technique" to teach (Jesus is put in situations he shouldn't have been in)
3. Uses "I Am" passages, which identifies Jesus with Moses, Yahweh, and the burning bush
4. Stresses continuation of Jesus' power and presence in the sacraments
5. Set in 4 parts- shows insight to Jesus and his message, often used as a source of prayer
4 parts of John's Gospel
1. Prologue
2. Book of Signs (miracles and wondrous deeds)
3. Book of Glory (Last Supper, passion/death, resurrection)
4. Epilogue (resurrection appearances)
Jesus is a man of action
Mark
Jesus shows emotion
Mark
Jesus is a Jewish Messiah and Teacher
Matthew
Thoughtful and Reflective
Matthew
Gospel of mercy and forgiveness
Luke
Jesus is a healer
Luke
Gospel of Eternal Salvation
Luke
Gospel of the Holy Spirit
Luke
Jesus is God and the Word of God
John
Jesus is strong and powerful
John
Hardest for students to understand because of the Trinity
John
Jesus is divine
John
Mistakes Technique
John
Rhetoric Questioning Technique
Mark
What are the two parts which lead up to a profession of faith in the Gospel of Mark?
1. Jew: "You are the Messiah"
2. Roman officer, a Gentile: "He was the Son of God"
What order where the Gospels written in?
Mark
Luke
Matthew
John