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Unit 3 Vocabulary Bio-Med
Terms in this set (39)
A condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness.
The pale yellow fluid portion of whole blood that consists of water and its dissolved constituents including, sugars, lipids, metabolic waste products, amino acids, hormones, and vitamins.
The percent of the volume of whole blood that is composed of red blood cells as determined by separation of red blood cells from the plasma usually by centrifugation
Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin, contain a nucleus, and include lympocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
Sickle Cell Disease
Individuals who are homozygous for the gene controlling hemoglobin S. The disease is characterized by the destruction of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium.
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood
A minute colorless disk-like body of mammalian blood that assists in blood clotting by adhering (sticking) to other platelets and to damaged epithelium. No nucleus.
Organic monomer which is the building block of proteins.
Triplet of nucleotide bases in transfer RNA that identifies the amino acid carried and binds to a complementary codon in messsenger RNA during protein synthesis at a ribosome.
Three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal. Basic unit of the genetic code.
Affinity (love) of water
Aversion (fear) of water. Tends to coalesce and form droplets in water.
Type of RNA, synthesized from DNA and attached to ribosomes in the cytoplasm. It specifies the primary structure of a protein.
Building block of a nucleic acid. Consists of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
Creation of a protein from a DNA template
Type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogen bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guannie (G), and uracil (U). Usually single stranded. Functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
Cell organelle that functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. Consists of ribosomal RNA and protein molecules and is formed by combining two subunits.
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in mRNA
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of language from nucleotides to amino acids.
Alternative form of a gene that may occur at a given locus.
Chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome.
Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
Genetic trait that is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait. Person can have HH or Hh.
Unit of hereditary information. Segment of DNA
Molecules responsible for heredity and variation of organisms.
All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
Transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant
Chromosomes having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order.
Display of chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape
Cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell.
Process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves a series of steps, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
Change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characteristics in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
The observable properties of an organisms that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment
Condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a gene, one copy from each parent.
One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
A simple graphical way of discoering all of the potential combinations of genotypes of an offspring, given the parents' genotypes.
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