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Chemistry: Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement
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Gravity
Terms in this set (33)
Celsius scale
one of the three temperature scales in which water freezes at 0° C and boils at 100° C.
chemical properties
those properties that determine how a substance can be converted to another substance by a chemical reaction
chemistry
Study of matter, its composition, properties and transformations.
compound
a pure substance formed by chemically combining two or more elements
conversion factor
a term that converts a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit
cubic centimeter
a unit of volume equal to one millimeter; one cubic centimeter = 1 cm³ = 1 cc
density
a physical property that relates the mass of a substance to its volume. Density = g/(mL or cc).
element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substance by a chemical reaction.
english system of measurement
a system of measurement used primarily in the united states in which units are not systematically related to each other and require memorization.
exact number
a number that results from counting objects or is part of a definition.
factor-label method
a method of using conversion factors to convert a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit
Fahrenheit scale
one of three temperature scales in which water freezes at 32° F and boils at 212° F.
gas
a state of matter that has no definite shape or volume. The particles of a gas move randomly and are separated by a distance much larger than their size.
gram
the basic unit of mass in the metric system.
inexact number
a number that results from a measurement or observation and contains some uncertainty.
Kelvin scale
a temperature scale commonly used by scientists. The kelvin scale is divided into kelvins (K=°C+273)
liquid
a state of matter that has a definite volume, but takes on the shape of the container it occupies. The particles of a liquid are close together but they can randomly move past each other.
liter
the basic unit of volume in the metric system.
mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
matter
Anything that has mass and takes up volume
meter
A unit used to measure length.
metric system
A measurement system in which each type of measurement has a base unit and all other units are related to the base unit by a prefix that indicates if the unit is larger or smaller than the base unit.
mixture
matter composed of more than one component.
physical properties
those properties of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the material.
pure substance
a substance that contains a single component, and has a constant composition regardless of the sample size.
scientific notation
a system in which numbers are written as y x 10×, where y is a number and 1 and 10 and x can be either positive or negative.
SI units
the international system of units formally adopted as the uniform system of units for the sciences.
significant figures
all of the digits in a measured number, including one estimated digit.
solid
a state of matter that has a definite shape and volume. The particles of a solid lie close together, and are arranged in a regular three-dimensional array.
specific gravity
a unitless quantity that compares the density of a substance with the density of water at 4° C.
states of matter
the form in which most matter exits, gas, liquid, and solid.
temperature
a measure of how hot or cold an object is.
weight
the force that matter feels due to gravity.
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