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Foreign policy of Theodore Roosevelt that was based on the proverb, "Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far," which advocated that the US engage in diplomacy but also maintain a strong military readiness to back up US goals

"Big stick" diplomacy

Law that authorized the President to divide tribal land and distribute it to individual Native Americans; it gave 160 acres of land to each head of the household and promised eventual US citizenship in an attempt to assimilate them

Dawes Severalty Act (1887)

Book by Alfred Thayer Mahan that argued nations should expand their world power through foreign commerce and a strong navy; strongly influenced American politicians who advocated expansion, especially Theodore Roosevelt

The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)

Policy set forth in 1899 in letters sent to world powers by Secretary of State John Hay preventing further partitioning of China by European powers and protecting the principle of free trade for all nations within China

Open Door Notes

US army general who directed attacks against Native Americans in the 1870s; commanded forces killed in 1876 at Little Bighorn in Montana

George Armstrong Custer

Officer in United States Navy who led a surprise attack in the Manila Bay in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War that destroyed the entire Spanish fleet

George Dewey

Leader of Nez Perce who were forced to give up their homeland by the US army and flee toward Canada; captured in 1877

Chief Joseph

Leader of the Sioux in their clash with the US army in the Black Hills in 1876 and 1877

Sitting Bull

These cases involved the extent to which constitutional rights are granted to people of newly acquired US territories. The Court ruled that the Constitution does not necessarily guarantee these rights unless they are granted by Congress

Insular Cases (1901 to 1904)

Settlers who rushed into Indian Territory upon its opening for settlement


Name given by Native Americans to black soldiers in the U.S. Army who served in the West during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

Buffalo soldier

Techniques used to raise crops in areas that receive little rain

Dry farming

Group of African Americans who migrated to the Great Plains after Reconstruction; many were led by "Pap" Singleton


Agreement between the US and Japan that restricted Japanese worker immigration in exchange for the right of Japanese children to attend schools in California

Gentleman's Agreement (1907)

Town that has been abandoned due to a lack of economic activity

Ghost town

A force of US naval ships that undertook a world cruise in 1907 to demonstrate TR‟s "big stick" policy

Great White Fleet

Policy of a stronger nation which creates an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily


A feeling of intense national pride and a desire for an aggressive foreign policy; often encouraged by yellow journalists, Social Darwinists, and naval expansionists


Moving of cattle from the Texas grasslands to railroad centers in Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming that shipped the cattle to the market

Long drive

Location of the shooting by army troops of over 300 group of captured, unarmed Sioux in their attempt to end the Ghost Dance; last major battle between the US army and the Indians

Wounded Knee (1890)

Attempt by farmers, debtors, and silver miners to convince the federal government to increase the use of silver coins to increase the supply of money to increase inflation

Free silver movement

A method of mining used by individual prospectors

Placer mining

Area that the federal government controlled that was set aside for Native Americans who had lost their homelands in wars or treaties


People who staked out claims in Indian Territory before it was legally opened to settlement


Area of economic and political control exerted by one nation over another nation

Sphere of influence

Argument made by Frederick Jackson Turner that the frontier regions had strongly influenced the development of democracy and individualism in American life

Turner thesis (1893)

Citizen who takes the law into his or her own hands, without authority from the government


Law that offered 160 acres of government land in the West to settlers who lived on the land for five years

Homestead Act

Law in which the federal government distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments to sell pay for state agriculture colleges

Morrill Land-Grant Act

A political party founded in 1874 to promote the use of paper currency to increase inflation.

Greenback Party

Sensationalistic press accounts of the Cuban situation in the 1890s, led by William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, which helped mobilize pro-interventionist public opinion prior to the Spanish-American War

Yellow journalism

Newspaper publisher of the New York Journal who used "yellow journalism" in the 1890s to stir up sentiment in favor of the Spanish-American War

William Randolph Hearst

Newspaper publisher of the New York World who used "yellow journalism" in the 1890s to stir up sentiment in favor of the Spanish-American War

Joseph Pulitzer

Book written by Reverend Josiah Strong that advocated US expansion to allow American missionaries to spread American religions and values to other nations

Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis (1885)

Social organization founded in 1867 by Oliver Kelley in Minnesota to help farmers cooperate economically and politically

The Grange
(Patrons of Husbandry)

Historian who wrote an essay in 1893 emphasizing the western frontier as a powerful force in the formation of the American character

Frederick Jackson Turner

Queen of Hawaii who was unjustly overthrown by American business leaders living in Hawaii in 1893 after she insisted that Native Hawaiians have more political control

Queen Lilioukalani

Central American waterway built by the US that vastly improved American naval defenses but angered Colombia because the US encouraged a Panamanian revolt

Panama Canal

US and Japan agreed to respect each other‟s territorial holdings in the Pacific Ocean

Root Takahira Agreement (1908)

Treaty that ended the Spanish American War; Spain agreed to Cuban independence and the US obtained control of the Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines

Treaty of Paris (1898)

Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull defeated the US army forces led by General Custer during the Second Sioux War

Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876)

Conflict that started when gold was discovered on the Sioux reservation and the federal government allowed thousands of miners to go into the Black Hills and claimed, despite treaty promises to the Sioux.

Second Sioux War
(1875 to 1877)

War with Spain to free Cuba from Spanish control and protect US business investments in Cuba; ended in US victory

Spanish American War

Filipino nationalist who led an insurrection against both Spanish rule (1898) and US occupation after the Spanish American War (1899 to 1901)

Emilio Aguinaldo

Revolt against US occupation of the Philippines at the end of the Spanish American War

Philippine Insurrection
(1899 to 1902)

Agreement between Japan and Russia negotiated by President Roosevelt, which earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906

Treaty of Portsmouth

US intervened to settle a dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana over land, demonstrating that the US would uphold the Monroe Doctrine

Venezuelan boundary dispute (1895)

Leader of the Sioux who helped defeat Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, who was later captured by the US army

Crazy Horse

Religious ritual celebrating the earlier freedom of the Indians; the federal government banned it in 1890

Ghost dance

Theory that the availability of the frontier reduced social problems in American by providing economic opportunities for eastern factory workers

"Safety valve"

Program of reforms to help farmers adopted by the National Farmers‟ Alliance in Florida; ideas adopted by the Populist Party in 1892 and 1896

Ocala Platform

Leader of the Apache Indians of the Southwest who fought against the US army until they were captured and forced to settle on government reservations


Rich deposit of gold and silver discovered in 1859 that brought wealth to Nevada in the 1860s and 1870s

Comstock lode

Former Indian Territory where "sooners" tried to get the jump on "boomers" when it was opened for settlement in 1889


Improved type of fencing that allowed farmers to enclose land on treeless plains

Barbed wire

Reformer who wrote A Century of Dishonor and Ramona to arouse sympathy for the plight of the Indians

Helen Hunt Jackson

Eloquent leader of the Farmers‟ Alliance from Kansas who urged farmers to "raise less corn and more hell"

Mary E. Lease

Valuable naval base acquired by the US from Hawaii in 1887

Pearl Harbor

Congressional statement that the US would not annex Cuba to the US after the nation was free from Spanish rule

Teller Amendment

The US defeated the Spanish fleet in a dramatic naval victory in Manila, which led to the US acquisition of these islands in the Pacific at the end of the Spanish American War


Aggressive Assistant Secretary of the Navy who advocated for US imperialism and led a cavalry regiment known as the "Rough Riders" during the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba

Theodore Roosevelt

Extension of the Monroe Doctrine that declared a US right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations to guarantee debt repayment and prevent European intervention

Roosevelt Corollary

US battleship sent to Cuba to protect US business investments in 1898 whose explosion was blamed on Spain

USS Maine

Part of Cuba‟s 1901 Constitution which gave the US the right to keep two naval stations in Cuba and to intervene to keep order

Platt Amendment

Theodore Roosevelt led this cavalry group during the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba

Rough Riders

Anti-foreign Chinese revolt that brought military intervention by western troops, including the US

Boxer Rebellion

A political party established primarily by former members of the Farmers' Alliance and Greenback Party that sought to inflate the currency with silver dollars, regulate the railroads, and establish an income tax; Democrats adopted some of its platform in 1896 and it died out after the defeat of joint candidate William Jennings Bryan, higher farm prices, and discoveries of gold in Alaska

Populist (People's) Party

Railway workers' strike that started when the Pullman Company cut workers‟ wages but not the company housing rents; the strike spread nationwide under the leadership of Eugene Debs, leader of the American Railway Union

Pullman strike

This case involved the Illinois law that prohibited the practice of charging different rates for long and short hauls. The Court ruled that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce, so railroads could not be regulated by states

Wabash v. Illinois

Short-lived pro-farmer and worker third party that gained over a million votes and elected fourteen Congressmen in 1878

Greenback Labor Party

Political party founded to promote the issuance of paper currency to increase inflation

Greenback Party

Westerners and farmers description of the decision by the federal government to stop making silver dollars, thus limiting the supply of money

Crime of '73

Law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver

Bland-Allison Act

This case involved the Illinois law that prohibited the practice of charging different rates for long and short hauls. The Court ruled that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce, so railroads could not be regulated by states

Wabash v. Illinois

Short-lived pro-farmer and worker third party that gained over a million votes and elected fourteen Congressmen in 1878

Greenback Labor Party

State laws in the 1870s and 1880s which regulated railroads; declared unconstitutional in the Supreme Court case of Wabash v. Illinois in 1886

Granger laws

Author of The Influence of Sea Power Upon History who argued in 1890 that the economic future of the US rested on new overseas markets protected by a larger navy

Alfred T. Mahan

Organization formed to encourage cooperative buying and selling among farmers and to support laws to regulate railroads

National Farmers‟ Alliance

A movement among Christian ministers who believed that churches had an obligation to help the poor

Social gospel

Political activist and women's rights leader in the late 1800s who served as president of NAWSA from 1892 until 1900

Susan B. Anthony

Author of Progress and Poverty (1879) linking land speculation to poverty; proposed a single tax based on land value

Henry George

Progressive reformer active from 1886 to 1920 who worked in state and federal government for laws on child labor, workplace safety, and consumer protection

Florence Kelley

Reformer who wrote How the Other Half Lives, describing the lives of poor immigrants in New York City in the late 1800s

Jacob Riis

Image of the independent "new woman" of the 1890s

Gibson girl

Book that advertised a wide range of goods that could be purchased by mail

Mail-order catalog

Relating to a city


Supreme Court decision that allowed states to regulate certain businesses, including railroads, within their borders; overturned by the Wabash decision in 1886

Munn v. Illinois (1877)

Women‟s rights group formed in 1890 that worked nationwide to obtain the right to vote and other civil rights

National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

Women's rights group formed in 1869 and led by Susan B. Anthony that refused to support the 14th and 15th Amendments because they did not guarantee voting rights for women; worked to obtain a national amendment to guarantee women‟s suffrage

National Women's Suffrage Association

Moderate women's rights group formed in 1869 that supported the 14th and 15th Amendment that worked to get individual states to give women the right to vote

American Women's Suffrage Association

Person who gives donations to worthy causes


Variety-show popular in the late 1800s and early 1900s


Newspaper publisher who used "yellow journalism" (sensationalism) to make his newspaper The New York Journal successful

William R. Hearst

Author of popular dime novels in which young men worked hard and led "clean" lives and earned fame and fortune.

Horatio Alger

Requirement that students attend school; supported by educational reformers of the late 1800s but opposed by some families and businesses who depended on child labor

Compulsory education

People who found a way to believe in Christianity and Darwinism

Religious modernists

Newcomers to the US who came mostly from southern and eastern Europe and were frequently blamed for the poverty and corruption in the cities of the late 1800s

New immigrants

Darwin's idea of natural selection and survival of the fittest that cast a doubt on the literal interpretation of the Bible

Theory of evolution

Immigrants who came to America to earn money for a time and then returned home to their native country

Birds of passage

Type of ornamental architecture in the late 1800s made popular by Henry Richardson who is often referred to as the "first American architect"


President of NAWSA in the early 1900s who argued that women should be given the right to vote because it would lead to laws that would help family life

Carrie Catt

Nativist organization in the 1880s and 1890s that urged restrictions against immigrants and Catholics

American Protective Association

Campaigned for sexual purity and supported a federal law that banned obscene materials, including information about birth control, from being sent through the mail

Anthony Comstock

Midwestern born writer and lecturer who created a new style of American literature based on realism and humor

Mark Twain

Gifted New England poet, most of whose works were not published until after her death

Emily Dickinson

Civil War nurse and founder of the American Red Cross

Clara Barton

Organization founded by Frances Willard and others in 1874 to oppose alcohol consumption

Women's Christian Temperance Union

Leading Protestant urban "circuit rider" (traveling minister) who tried to revive religion in the industrial cities of the late 1800s

Dwight L. Moody

Community center established by Jane Addams that provided social services to people living in the Chicago slums

Hull House

Book written by Andrew Carnegie which defended the wealth of the industrialists but also argued that they had a responsibility to help society

Gospel of Wealth

Privately-owned community center in the late 1800s that provided various services to the urban poor

Settlement house

First territory and state in the US to allow women to vote


Designed the first all-steel skeleton skyscraper in Chicago

Louis Sullivan

Religious doctrine preached by ministers in the late 1800s, which argued that churches had a duty to help the poor

Social gospel

Area where most of the immigrants to the US came from before 1880

Western Europe

Area where most of the "new immigrants" to the US came from after 1880

Eastern Europe

Crowded high-rise apartment building with poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort.

Dumbbell tenements

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