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NCSBN Medication Flashcards

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Terms in this set (62)
These medications cause vasodilation by blocking the binding of norepinephrine to the smooth muscle receptors in blood vessels.

To prevent, treat or improve symptoms in conditions such as hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Raynaud's disease, scleroderma, and pheochromocytoma.

doxazosin (Cardura)
prazosin (Minipress)
tamsulosin (Flomax)
terazosin (Hytrin)

Nice to know: alpha blockers are usually prescribed only when other antihypertensives are not working

Really important: significant dizziness and syncope are common with the first dose (AKA first dose effect)
These medications slow the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), decreasing the production of angiotensin II. As a result, blood vessels relax and dilate, blood pressure lowers, and more oxygen-rich blood reaches the heart.

Control blood pressure, treat heart failure, and help prevent stroke.

benazepril* (Lotensin)
captopril (Capoten)
enalapril* (Vasotec)
fosinopril (Monopril)
lisinopril* (Prinivil, Zestril)
moexipril (Univasc)
perindopril (Aceon)
quinapril (Accupril)
ramipril (Altace)
trandolapril (Mavik)

Good to know: can cause a permanent dry cough

Really important: Warning! these drugs can cause angioedema a rare complication that may rapidly lead to cardiac arrest
These medications block the action of angiotensin II by preventing angiotensin II from binding to angiotensin II receptors on blood vessels. As a result, blood vessels dilate and blood pressure drops.

Control high blood pressure and treat heart failure.

Slow the progression of kidney disease due to high blood pressure or diabetes.

candesartan (Atacand)
irbesartan (Avapro)
losartan (Cozaar)
olmesartan* (Benicar)
valsartan* (Diovan)

Good to know: ARBs are used for people who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors (not a substitute for ACE inhibitors and do not prolong life the way ACE inhibitors do)

Really important: Women who are pregnant should not take ARBs b/c they cause birth defects (pregnancy category D)
These medications:

May prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine by blocking the activity of acetylcholinesterase (cholinesterase inhibitors).

Help regulate the activity of glutamate, a chemical involved in the processing, storage and retrieval of information (NMDA receptor antagonists).

Treat mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine).

Memantine is used treat moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease.

cholinesterase inhibitor
donepezil* (Aricept)
galantamine (Razadyne)
rivastigmine* (Exelon)

NMDA receptor antagonist
memantine* (Namenda)

Really important: these drugs only postpone the worsening of symptoms. there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease
These medications are bactericidal; they inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria and compromise the structure of the bacterial cell wall.

Treat and prevent severe infections, such as septicemia and severe urinary tract infections.

Treat hospital-acquired respiratory infections, caused by aerobic, gram-negative bacteria, e.g., as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species.

amikacin (Amikin)
gentamicin (Garamycin)
kanamycin (Kantrex)
neomycin (Neo-Fradin)
streptomycin (Streptomycin)
tobramycin (Nebcin, TOBI)

Good to know: aminoglycosides can be fairly toxic, so they are given for a short period of time. After initial tx the client is switched to a less toxic antiinfective (once the causative agent of infection is identified)

Really important: a common side effect is hearing loss. Gentamicin toxicity is the most common cause of bilateral vestibulopathy (damage to both inner ears). Symptoms of toxicity include imbalance and oscillopsia