CompTIA A+ Chapter 10 Implementing Hard Drives
Terms in this set (60)
Process of electronically subdividing the physical hard drive into smaller units called partitions
Installs a file system onto the drive that organizes each partition in such a way that the OS can store files and folders on the drive.
Partitioning Methods (3)
Master boot record. MBR
GUID partition Table GPT
Basic disk vs dynamic disk
MBR and GPT uses basic disks and use partitions
Dynamic storage uses dynamic disks and calls them volumes
Master Boot Record
First sector of MBR drive contains MBR
Contains Partition table which describes # and size of partitions on disk
Supports up to 4 partitions
Partitions can be no larger than 2.2TB
Primary and Extended Partitions
Partition boot sector
Loads the OS on that partition. Each partition has one. This information is on the Partition table
Only primary partitions can boot OS
Assigned drive letter D: through Z:
Can contain multiple logical drives which can get drive letters
Can't boot OS from it
Extended partition itself doesn't get drive letter only the logical drives
Called volumes instead of partition
Not limited to 4 volumes
Through software, can implement RAID among other drive structures that you cant do in MBR
GUID Partition Table. Global Unique Identifier
Up to 128 partitions
Have no partition size limit
Arranged in LBA instead of sctors
Logical block addressing. More efficient since they are not defined like sectors which have to be the same size.
Protective MBR on GPT partitions.
Located at the beginning and end of the drive so there is a protective copy.
Can configure 64-bit versions of modern windows to boot from GPT only if you use UEFI motherboards
primary partition that is hidden from your OS. used to hide backup copy of installed OS so you can restore your system
Found on Linux and UNIX systems. Act like RAM when your system needs more RAM. Windows calls this Page file
Command-line program used to partition drives
Graphical partitioning program. Under Computer Management in Administrator Tools
Provides the foundation upon which the OS builds files and folders
File systems supported by Windows
FAT 16, FAT32, NTFS, exFAT/FAT64 (removable media)
File Allocation Table
Use sectors that store 512 byes of data
Like 2 column spreadsheet
combining a set of contiguous sectors and treating them as a single unit in the FAT Each row of FAT addressed a cluster insetad of a sector
Supported partitions up to 2GB
Automatically makes 2 copies of the FAT
Parts of any file can get written to separate palces on the disk
Windows Vista/7. used to rearrange files into neat contiguous chunks
Windows 8/8.1/10. Used to rearrange files into neat contiguous chunks
Supports partitions up to 2 TB
Uses 32 bits to describe each cluster
More efficient use of disk space with FAT32.
File size up to 4GB
New Technology File System
Supports Partitions up to 16TB
Offered 6 improvements
Redundancy, security, compression, encryption, disk quotas, cluster sizing
Utilizes MFT. Keeps a backup copy of the most critical parts of the MFT in the middle of the disk
Master file table. Kept in the middle of the disk.
Provides security for individual files and folders through a feature called Access Control List ACL
Can compress individual files and folders to save space on Hard drive. Accessing these compressed files takes longer since it has to uncompressed them to open them
Making files unreadable to anybody who doesnt have the right key. Calls it EFS
Encrypting File system. NTFS encrypting feature.
NTFS Disk Quotas
Enables admins to set limits on drive space usage for users.
Right click hard drive name, ,select properties.
Select Quota tab and make changes
NTFS cluster sizes
Can adjust the cluster sizes in NTFS
exFAT. Supports files up to 16 exabytes (EB)
Partition limit of 64 zettabytes (ZB)
64-bit cluster entires
Lacks NTFS extra featurees
Hierarchical File System Plus.
MAC OS X file system.
Fourth Extended File system (ext4)
Linux File system.
Supports volumes up to 1 exabyte.
File size up to 16TB
Drive Status (5)
When you move a dynamic disk from one computer to another
When you are formatting a drive
Means that the disk is damaged or corrupt and probably lost the data
When disk is healthy and communicating properly with computer
Disk is either corrupted or having communication problems
Creating partitions or volumes
Right click unallocated part of drive and select New Simple Volume
Specify volume size and click next
Give it a drive letter
First 3 volumes are primary partitions, volumes afterwards are logical drives(extended partitions)
Type of format
Does not test the disk cluster
Checks the disk clusters to make sure they are working
Importing foreign drive into new system
Righ click disk icon and select import foreign drive
Converting basic disk to dynamic
Right click drive icon and select convert to Dynamic Disk. Process is safe and quick. Reverse is not true
Enables you to use your existing folders to store more data than can fit on a single drive or partition/volume.
Grouping one or more physical drives of any size into a single storage pool
Start screen, type storage spaces
Create a new pool and storage space
Select drives you want to include in pool
Select resiliency mechanism
Offers simple spaces, mirror spaces, and parity spaces
For storage spaces. Provides one or more layers of redundancy so you can lose a hard rive or two and not lose any data
like JBOD. Has multiple drives added together to form a single virtual drive. provides no resiliency.
Can lose one or more drives and still save your data. Works like RAD 1 or RAID 10
Similar to RAID 5 or RAID 6
More space efficient than two-way mirroring. Every 10GB of data, 15GB needs to be installed instead of 20GB like in RAID
Can lose one drive and recover in 3 drive parity space
can lose 2 drives and recover in 7 drive parity space
Can create a space with more capacity than your current physical drives provide. You don't have to redo an array or space when you reach the limits of current hardware. You can simply buy and add in another drive and retain it
ScanDisk and chkdsk
command line utilities. Used to check clusters on drives
To access: open Windows Explorer/File Explorer, righ click on drive and choose properties, select tools tab, click check now button
Displays Check disk dialog box
Check box Automatically fix file system errors since its quicker
Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors for when you actually suspect a problem since it takes longer
Disk checker in Mac OS X
Disk Utility in Utilities folder
Verify disk or both Verify disk and Rpair disk
Right click drive in Windows Explorer/File Explorer, choose properties, click Defragment now button on Tools tab
Windows vista/7: Start, All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, Disk Cleanup
Windows 8/8.1/10: Start button, type "disk cleanup"
Types of junk Disk cleanup takes care of
Files in Recycle Bin
Temporary Internet Files
Downloaded program files