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1883 legislation that attempted to replace the "spoils system" with a "merit system," by creating the Civil Service Commission. In other words, people seeking government jobs would now have to pass a test to receive the job, based on merit
New York democratic party/political machine; gained notoriety for corrupt practices; political machines came to power because of the rapid growth of cities-machines traded services to city-dwellers for votes at the polls
most famous political cartoonist of the Gilded Age; known for his scathing editorials against the infamous Boss Tweed
1882 legislation passed in response to complaints of workers on the West Coast that competition from Chinese immigrants was driving down wages and threatening white racial purity; ended Chinese immigration
Chinese Exclusion Act
aka: The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry; founded by Oliver Kelley; promoted education and socialization of farmers
1894; along with other unemployed people lead a march to Washington, D.C., to support enactment of laws that would create public works projects
political party created in the 1890's that supported reform and represented the views of the farmers
economic situation in which goods and services are more expensive, therefore causing a decline in the value of money; loss of purchasing power
a decline in general price levels, often caused by a reduction in the supply of money or credit
1887 legislation passed as an attempt to assimilate the Indians by dividing reservations into individual pieces of land, breaking up the tribes
Dawes Severalty Act
written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881 to expose the atrocities the United States committed against Native Americans in the 19th century
A Century of Dishonor
The Significance of the Frontier in American History argued the closing of the Frontier had ended an era in American History
The Turner (Frontier) Thesis
in the mid 19th century, groups of miners searching for precious metal (gold and silver) began the surge into the West, beginning the boom-bust cycles of settlement
famous speech given by William Jennings Bryan; in support of bimetalism, Bryan spoke of the gold standard as a burden (like the cross)
"Cross of Gold" Speech
Election of 1896; partly because of the popularity of his speeches, he received the nomination of the Democrats and Populist
William Jennings Bryan
a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land; primary occupation of African Americans in the New South
early African American civil rights leader; established Tuskegee Institute; known for his "Atlanta Compromise" of 1895
Booker T. Washington
speech given by Booker T. Washington that outlined his ideas concerning African American self-improvement through vocational education to achieve economic goals
name adopted from a slavery-era play; during this time period, the law enforced segregation of African Americans from whites
Jim Crow Era
the African Americans migrating to the Great Plains state (ie: Kansas & Oklahoma) in 1879 to escape conditions in the South
the usage of both silver and gold as currency; Republicans believed i a money system based on the single gold standard, while the Democrats (Populist) believed in bimetallism
Indian tribe led by Chief Joseph; ordered onto a reservation in Idaho in 1877, they fled instead; after giving up they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma
1890 U.S. cavalry slaughter of Native Americans marketing the end of the Indian Wars on the Great Plain
the Supreme Court ruled in 1886 that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce, leading to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission
Wabash v. Illinois
Jocob Coxey's army of unemployed who marched on Washington D.C. during the Panic of 1893
1887..began gov't regulation of the railroads...gov'ts policy switched from land subsidies to forbidding rebates to favored customers...required publication of rates, established ICC, prohibited rebates, outlawed short haul surchage.
Interstate Commerce Act
1890...purpose was to attempt to restore business competition....was not immediately successful
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Real wages declined, production increased dramatically, new types of business corporations emerged, immigration increased
Effects of Industrialism
not much success in the late 1800's because unionism was the opposite of American individualism
during the Gilded Age...ruthless competitors who cheated investors and exploited workers...late 19th century
Bombing in Chicago in 1886 at a labor rally...skilled workers abandoned the K of L in favor of the A F of L ...people associated unions with violence
after 1890(more or less)...came from Southern and Easter Europe in the later 1800's ..settled in the big cities of the Northeast and Midwest
assisted immigrants in exchange for their votes, found immigrants jobs, provided legal help and emergency assistance, psychological comfort
Urban Political Machines
Pseudo-scientific evidence used by welathy Americans to prove that they deserved their wealthy...natural selection and survival of the fittest
Carnegie's belief that the wealthy must serve as trustees for their wealth and the public good
Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth
Jane Addams was the leader of this movement...young, affluent college educated woman provided help for the immigrants
Populist/Dem Bryan Vs GOP McKinley...free silver vs gold standard...Bryan had made famous "Cross of Gold" speech
from 1865-1890, most immigrants came from northern western Europe ...after that from southern to eastern Europe
Leader of the American Railway Workers Union...he turned to socialism after the Pullman Strike
increase currency/money supply for higher farm prices..reduce farmer's debt...reduce power of the eastern bankers...expand silver mining...were all favored by the Populists
Effects of the "free silver"
defended by the GOP because it brought additional revenue to the federal gov't ...was main issue that divided GOP and the Democrats in the Gilded Age
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
often referred to as the richest person in history, this man founded Standard Oil and became a philanthropist who contributed to many worthy projects including but not limited to medicine, scientific research and education.
John D. Rockerfeller
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
powerful and wealthy 19th century steel corporation founded by Andrew Carnagie and JP morgan
Term that identified southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
Little Big Horn
Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
Election of 1896
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Houses that poor people lived in, located in cities Showed some atrocities of American industrial life.
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
W.E.B. Du Bois
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