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96 terms

APUSH Unit 5 Review

STUDY
PLAY
1883 legislation that attempted to replace the "spoils system" with a "merit system," by creating the Civil Service Commission. In other words, people seeking government jobs would now have to pass a test to receive the job, based on merit
Pendleton Act
New York democratic party/political machine; gained notoriety for corrupt practices; political machines came to power because of the rapid growth of cities-machines traded services to city-dwellers for votes at the polls
Tammany Hall
most famous political cartoonist of the Gilded Age; known for his scathing editorials against the infamous Boss Tweed
Thomas Nast
1882 legislation passed in response to complaints of workers on the West Coast that competition from Chinese immigrants was driving down wages and threatening white racial purity; ended Chinese immigration
Chinese Exclusion Act
aka: The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry; founded by Oliver Kelley; promoted education and socialization of farmers
The Grange
1894; along with other unemployed people lead a march to Washington, D.C., to support enactment of laws that would create public works projects
Jacob Coxey
political party created in the 1890's that supported reform and represented the views of the farmers
Populists
economic situation in which goods and services are more expensive, therefore causing a decline in the value of money; loss of purchasing power
Inflation
a decline in general price levels, often caused by a reduction in the supply of money or credit
Deflation
1887 legislation passed as an attempt to assimilate the Indians by dividing reservations into individual pieces of land, breaking up the tribes
Dawes Severalty Act
written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881 to expose the atrocities the United States committed against Native Americans in the 19th century
A Century of Dishonor
The Significance of the Frontier in American History argued the closing of the Frontier had ended an era in American History
The Turner (Frontier) Thesis
in the mid 19th century, groups of miners searching for precious metal (gold and silver) began the surge into the West, beginning the boom-bust cycles of settlement
Miners
famous speech given by William Jennings Bryan; in support of bimetalism, Bryan spoke of the gold standard as a burden (like the cross)
"Cross of Gold" Speech
Election of 1896; partly because of the popularity of his speeches, he received the nomination of the Democrats and Populist
William Jennings Bryan
a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land; primary occupation of African Americans in the New South
Sharecropping
early African American civil rights leader; established Tuskegee Institute; known for his "Atlanta Compromise" of 1895
Booker T. Washington
speech given by Booker T. Washington that outlined his ideas concerning African American self-improvement through vocational education to achieve economic goals
Atlanta Compromise
the separation of the races in the United States
Segregation
provides equal protection and due process of the law
14th Amendment
taking away the right to vote
Disfranchise
the right to vote
Suffrage
unfair test administered to people in the South, to disfranchise black citizens
Literacy Test
voting tax used to keep black people from voting
Poll Tax
name adopted from a slavery-era play; during this time period, the law enforced segregation of African Americans from whites
Jim Crow Era
the African Americans migrating to the Great Plains state (ie: Kansas & Oklahoma) in 1879 to escape conditions in the South
Exodusters
the usage of both silver and gold as currency; Republicans believed i a money system based on the single gold standard, while the Democrats (Populist) believed in bimetallism
Bimetallism
paper currency (money)
Greenbacks
absorbing of a weak/smaller culture by a stronger/dominant culture
Assimilation
Indian tribe led by Chief Joseph; ordered onto a reservation in Idaho in 1877, they fled instead; after giving up they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma
Nez Perce
1890 U.S. cavalry slaughter of Native Americans marketing the end of the Indian Wars on the Great Plain
Wounded Knee
1877 Supreme Court decision allowing state governments to regulate railroad rates
Munn v. Illinois
the Supreme Court ruled in 1886 that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce, leading to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission
Wabash v. Illinois
1896 Supreme Court decision allowing for "separate but equal" facilities
Plessy v. Ferguson
Jocob Coxey's army of unemployed who marched on Washington D.C. during the Panic of 1893
Coxey's Army
1884 election...GOP who criticized Blaine and defected to the Democrats.
Mugwumps
1887..began gov't regulation of the railroads...gov'ts policy switched from land subsidies to forbidding rebates to favored customers...required publication of rates, established ICC, prohibited rebates, outlawed short haul surchage.
Interstate Commerce Act
Cleveland elected again...Populists made strong gains in the West
1892 Election
Official US policy involved reservations the allotment of land to individuals
Indian Policies
technological advancement in the manufacturing of steel
Bessemer Process
1890...purpose was to attempt to restore business competition....was not immediately successful
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Real wages declined, production increased dramatically, new types of business corporations emerged, immigration increased
Effects of Industrialism
not much success in the late 1800's because unionism was the opposite of American individualism
Labor Unions
during the Gilded Age...ruthless competitors who cheated investors and exploited workers...late 19th century
Robber Barons
Excluded from US in early 1880's ..first group to be targeted by Congress
Chinese Immigrants
Welcomed all workers: skilled/unskilled, black/white, male/female
Knights of Labor
Bombing in Chicago in 1886 at a labor rally...skilled workers abandoned the K of L in favor of the A F of L ...people associated unions with violence
Haymarket Riot
after 1890(more or less)...came from Southern and Easter Europe in the later 1800's ..settled in the big cities of the Northeast and Midwest
New Immigration
Carnegie....Control all aspects of the stell making to increase profits
Verticle Integration
Reockefeller...a company that buys other businesses in the same industry
Horizontal integration
assisted immigrants in exchange for their votes, found immigrants jobs, provided legal help and emergency assistance, psychological comfort
Urban Political Machines
headed a ring of politicians that cheated NY City out of $100 million
Boss Tweed
Pseudo-scientific evidence used by welathy Americans to prove that they deserved their wealthy...natural selection and survival of the fittest
Social Darwinism
Carnegie's belief that the wealthy must serve as trustees for their wealth and the public good
Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth
free coinage of silver to increase the supply of money in circulation
Populist Goals
Jane Addams was the leader of this movement...young, affluent college educated woman provided help for the immigrants
Settlement Houses
Populist/Dem Bryan Vs GOP McKinley...free silver vs gold standard...Bryan had made famous "Cross of Gold" speech
1896 Election
federal land to the states to establish colleges
Morrill Land Grant Act
required the gov't to purchase silver
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Nez Perce Indian Cheif "I will fight no more forever"
Chief Joseph
from 1865-1890, most immigrants came from northern western Europe ...after that from southern to eastern Europe
Immigration Patterns
Leader of the American Railway Workers Union...he turned to socialism after the Pullman Strike
Eugene Debs
during the gilded Age it was the primary function of Pres
Patronage/Spoils System
increase currency/money supply for higher farm prices..reduce farmer's debt...reduce power of the eastern bankers...expand silver mining...were all favored by the Populists
Effects of the "free silver"
defended by the GOP because it brought additional revenue to the federal gov't ...was main issue that divided GOP and the Democrats in the Gilded Age
Protective Tariff
Established seperate, segregated facilities in the south
Jim Crow Laws
prevented former slaves (freedmen) from voting
KKK
the most devastating factor in their demise was the killing of the buffalo
Plains Indians
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
Cornelius Vanderbilt
American inventor of the telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
Thomas Edison
Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL
Andrew Carnegie
often referred to as the richest person in history, this man founded Standard Oil and became a philanthropist who contributed to many worthy projects including but not limited to medicine, scientific research and education.
John D. Rockerfeller
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Samuel Gompers
Men that were known for monopolistic corpurations
Trust
railroad which extended from Omaha, Nebraska westward
Union Pacific
railroad which extended from sacramento, california eastward
Central Pacific
an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
Grange
powerful and wealthy 19th century steel corporation founded by Andrew Carnagie and JP morgan
US Steel
Term that identified southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South
New south
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor
Leader of Army At Sand Creek Massacre
Col. J Chivington
Found Gold in Black Hills and forced Sioux out (Little Big Horn)
General George Armstrong Custer
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
Little Big Horn
Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
Long Drive
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Homestead Act
Develpoed the Frontier Thesis
Fredrick Jackson Turner
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Farmers Alliance
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Pullman Strike
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
Election of 1896
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Charles Darwin
Houses that poor people lived in, located in cities Showed some atrocities of American industrial life.
Dumbbell Tenement
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
18th Amendment
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Jane Addams
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
W.E.B. Du Bois
Settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago in 18889
Hull House