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26 terms

Genetics

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gene
section of DNA that codes for a particular trait
mutation
any change in the structure of DNA or chromosomes, or in the number of chromosomes
recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different organisms
genetic engineering
when scientists make changes to the DNA of organisms
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, found in the nucleus, contains the genetic code
RNA
ribonucleic acid, mRNA takes to genetic code to the ribosomes, tRNA transfers amino acids to the ribosomes
selective breeding
selecting individuals with desirable traits to mate and reproduce
inherited
passed on from parents
chromosomes
found in the nucleus, made of DNA, contain hereditary information
nucleotide
building blocks of DNA and RNA, made of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base
synthesis
to make
amino acid
building blocks of proteins
clone
genetically identical copy of an organism
insertion
type of mutation where there is an addition of a nitrogen base or potion of a chromosome
deletion
type of mutation where a nitrogen base or portion of a chromosome has been removed
substitution
type of mutation where one nitrogen base or section of chromosome is replaced by another
dominant
the characteristic that is expressed when genes for two traits are present
recessive
trait that is not expressed when genes for two traits are present
DNA fingerprinting
analysis of DNA in order to identify an individual
restriction enzymes
enzymes used in genetic engineering that cut the DNA at specific places
ligase
enzyme used in genetic engineering to splice two sections of DNA together
homologous chromosomes
pair of chromosomes, contain genes for the same traits
homozygous
two of the same alleles (genes) for a trait
heterozygous
two different alleles (genes) for a trait
genotype
Genetic makeup of an individual; combination of alleles
phenotype
observable traits of an individual.