section of DNA that codes for a particular trait
any change in the structure of DNA or chromosomes, or in the number of chromosomes
DNA produced by combining DNA from different organisms
when scientists make changes to the DNA of organisms
deoxyribonucleic acid, found in the nucleus, contains the genetic code
ribonucleic acid, mRNA takes to genetic code to the ribosomes, tRNA transfers amino acids to the ribosomes
selecting individuals with desirable traits to mate and reproduce
passed on from parents
found in the nucleus, made of DNA, contain hereditary information
building blocks of DNA and RNA, made of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base
building blocks of proteins
genetically identical copy of an organism
type of mutation where there is an addition of a nitrogen base or potion of a chromosome
type of mutation where a nitrogen base or portion of a chromosome has been removed
type of mutation where one nitrogen base or section of chromosome is replaced by another
the characteristic that is expressed when genes for two traits are present
trait that is not expressed when genes for two traits are present
analysis of DNA in order to identify an individual
enzymes used in genetic engineering that cut the DNA at specific places
enzyme used in genetic engineering to splice two sections of DNA together
pair of chromosomes, contain genes for the same traits
two of the same alleles (genes) for a trait
two different alleles (genes) for a trait
Genetic makeup of an individual; combination of alleles
observable traits of an individual.
uses an electrical current to separate DNA according to molecular size.
shows the number and visual appearance of chromosomes. It is used to detect chromosomal abnormalities.
the order of 4 nitrogen bases determines the coded instructions of DNA: A (adenine), G (guanine), C (cytosine), and T (thymine). RNA has the same bases except T (thymine) is replaces with U (uracil).
Process by which cells build proteins. DNA provides the instructions and it takes place in the ribosomes.