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section of DNA that codes for a particular trait


any change in the structure of DNA or chromosomes, or in the number of chromosomes

recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different organisms

genetic engineering

when scientists make changes to the DNA of organisms


deoxyribonucleic acid, found in the nucleus, contains the genetic code


ribonucleic acid, mRNA takes to genetic code to the ribosomes, tRNA transfers amino acids to the ribosomes

selective breeding

selecting individuals with desirable traits to mate and reproduce


passed on from parents


found in the nucleus, made of DNA, contain hereditary information


building blocks of DNA and RNA, made of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base


to make

amino acid

building blocks of proteins


genetically identical copy of an organism


type of mutation where there is an addition of a nitrogen base or potion of a chromosome


type of mutation where a nitrogen base or portion of a chromosome has been removed


type of mutation where one nitrogen base or section of chromosome is replaced by another


the characteristic that is expressed when genes for two traits are present


trait that is not expressed when genes for two traits are present

DNA fingerprinting

analysis of DNA in order to identify an individual

restriction enzymes

enzymes used in genetic engineering that cut the DNA at specific places


enzyme used in genetic engineering to splice two sections of DNA together

homologous chromosomes

pair of chromosomes, contain genes for the same traits


two of the same alleles (genes) for a trait


two different alleles (genes) for a trait


Genetic makeup of an individual; combination of alleles


observable traits of an individual.

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