Bio 8.1 and 8.2 (Has things from book)
Terms in this set (65)
ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells."
Excerpt From: Kenneth R. Miller, Ph.D. & Joseph S. Levine, Ph.D. "Biology." Pearson Education, Inc., 2012. iBooks.
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Why is ATP useful for cells?
Ability to do work
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Compound used by cells t o store and release energy.
5 carbon sugar (ribose)
3 phosphate groups
ATP consists of
What is key to ATP's ability to store and release energy
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
Has two phosphate groups.... "partial charged battery)
When a cell has energy available, it can store small amounts of it by adding phosphate groups to ADP molecules, producing ATP. ADP is like a rechargeable battery that powers the machinery of the cell.
How do cells store energy by using ATP and ADP
Cells can release the energy stored in ATP by the controlled breaking of the chemical bonds between the second and third phosphate groups.
How do cells release energy?
What do cells use the energy provided by ATP for
Long periods of time
ATP is not good for storing energy over _____ ______
True or False: cells can regenerate ATP from ADP
In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates
What happens during the process of photosynthesis?
No, they must produce it
Are cells born with a supply of ATP
Coeds from the chemical compounds we call found
How do we produce ATP
Organisms that obtain food by eating other organisms
Organisms that make their own food
the ability of autotrophs to capture the energy of sunlight and store it in the molecules that make up food.
Nearly all life on earth depends on.....
The process by which autotrophs use the energy of sunlight and store it in the molecules that make up food
Photosynthesis come from the Greek words photo meaning ..... and synthesis meaning
Because they feed of decomposing nutrients from organisms
Why are mushrooms considered heterotrophs
ATP to ADP
Energy is released upon the conversion
Light absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy
Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
Fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
Carrier molecule that transfers high energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
Light dependent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
Light independent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin cycle
Where does photosynthesis take place
Process by which plants make their food
Reactants and Products
Carbon dioxide CO2
What are the reactants in photosynthesis
What are the products of photosynthesis
Products are now reactants
What is photosynthesis in reverse
Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments.
What role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis
What is a mixture of different wave lengths
also includes indigo
What is the visible spectrum
Light absorbing molecules are known as
It is because chlorophyll absorbs visible light very well. Also, chlorophyll allows a large fraction of that light energy to transfer directly to electrons in the chlorophyll molecule itself. The energy levels of these electrons would help produce high energy electrons which make photosynthesis work.
What's so special about chlorophyll that makes it important for photosynthesis
An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.
What are electron carrier molecules?
It accepts and hold 2 high-energy electrons
What is the role of NADP+
NADP+ -> NADPH
What is one way that energy from the sunlight can be trapped in chemical form
Carry the high energy electrons that were produced by light absorption in chlorophyll to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell
What does NADPH do
To help build a variety of molecules the cell needs
What are high energy electron carrier molecules used for
To produce complex carbohydrates
What do plants use sugars for
The leaf would lose its green color due to the breakdown of chlorophyll in the leaf
What would likely be the result of covering a healthy green leaf with aluminum foil
Have a lot of energy and require a carrier to be transported
When chlorophyll absorbs light, the electrons produced are analogous to a hot potato in that both
Chlorophyll molecules are located in the
Pair of two cells that surround each stoma opening
Take in sugar, potassium, and chloride ions through their membranes
Function of guard cells
A tiny opening or pore used for gas exchange
Facilitates the process of photosynthesis
Function of stoma
Multiple stoma. Located on the outermost layer of the leaves, stems and other plant parts
The vascular tissue in plants.
Helps water and nutrients upward from the roots
Function of xylem
An open stoma
What is necessary for a plant to undergo photosynthesis
What are the reactants in a light dependent reaction
What are the products of a light dependent reaction
What are the reactants of light independent reaction
What are the products of a light independent recation
Light dependent reaction occurs in the
Light independent reaction occurs in the
Membrane..... it allows things in and out
Thylakoids are like a
Stack of thylakoids
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