AP Psychology Chapter 7: Cognition

AP Psychology Chapter 7: Cognition
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Terms in this set (...)

Memory
A system-human, animal, or machine- that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
Information-processing Model
A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stores, and retrieved
Encoding
One of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the modification of information to fit the preferred format for the memory system
Stored
One of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the retention of encoded material over time
Retrieval
The third basic task of memory, involving the locations and recovery of information from memory
Eidetic Imagery
An especially clear and persistent form of memory that is quite rare; sometimes known as "photographic memory"
Sensory Memory
The first of three memory stages, preserving brief sensory impressions of stimuli
Working Memory
The second of three memory stages, and the most limited in capacity. It preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minutes without rehearsal
Long-term memory (LTM)
The third of three memory, with the largest capacity and the longest duration; LTM stores material organized according to meaning
Chunking
Organizing pieces of information into a smaller number of meaningful units (or chunks)- a process that frees up space in working memory
Maintenance rehearsal
A working-memory process in which information is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory. Maintenance rehearsal involves no active elaboration
Elaborative rehearsal
A working-memory process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM
Acoustic encoding
The conversion of information, especially semantic information, to sound pattern in working memory
Levels-of-processing theory
The explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long-term memory (more "deeply" processed) will be remembered better
Procedural memory
A division of LTM that stores memories for how things are done
Declarative memory
A division of LTM that stores explicit information; also known as fact memory. Declarative memory has two subdivisions: episodic memory and semantic memory
Episodic memory
A subdivision of declarative memory that stores memory for person events, or "episodes"
Sematic memory
A subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including the meanings of words and concepts
Engram
The physical changes in the brain associated with a memory. It is also known as the memory trance
Anterograde amnesia
The inability to form memories for new information (as opposed to retrograde amnesia, which involves that inability to remember information previously stored in memory)
Consolidation
The process by which story-term memories are changed to long-term memories over a period of time
Retrograde amnesia
The inability to remember information previously stored in memory. (Compare with anterograde amnesia)
Flashbulb memory
A clear and vivid long-term memory of an especially meaningful and emotional event
Implicit memory
A memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness
Explicit memory
Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled
Retrieval cues
Stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior
Priming
A technique for cuing implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory
Recall
A retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented information
Recognition
A retrieval method in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented
Encoding specificity principle
The doctrine that memory is encoded and stored with specific cues related to the context in which it was formed. The more closely that retrieval cues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better it will be remembered
Mood-congruent memory
A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match (are congruent with) one's mood
TOT phenomenon
The inability to recall a word, while knowing it is in memory. People often describe this frustrating experience as having the word, "on the top of their tongue"
Transience
The impermanence of a long-term memory. Transience is based on the idea that long-term memories gradually fade in strength over time
Forgetting curve
A graph plotting the amount of retention and forgetting over time for a certain batch of material, such as a list of nonsense syllables. The typical forgetting curve is steep at first, becoming flatter as time goes on
Absent-mindedness
Forgetting caused by lapses of attention
Blocking
Forgettingt hat occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retrieved. Blocking is caused by an interference
Proactive interference
A cause of forgetting by which previously stored information prevents earning and remembering new information
Serial position effect
A form of interference related to the sequence in which information is presented. Generally, items in the middle of the sequence are less well remembered than items presented first or last
Misattribution
A memory fault that occurs when memories are retrieved but are associated with the wrong time, place, or person
Suggestibility
The process of memory distortion as the result of deliberate or inadvertent suggestion
Misinformation effect
The distortion of memory by suggestion or misinformation
Expectancy bias
In memory, a tendency to distort recalled events to make them fits one's expectations
Self-consistency bias
The commonly held idea that we are more consistent in our attitudes, opinions, and beliefs than we actually are
Persistence
A memory problem in which unwanted memories cannot be put out of mind
Mnemonics
Techniques for improving memory, especially by making connect ions between new material and information already in long-term memory
Method of loci
A mnemonic technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations
Natural language mediators
Words associated with new information to be remembered
Language acquisition device/LAD
A biologically organized mental structure in the brain that facilitates the learning of languages because (according to Chomsky) it is innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammar
Grammar
The rules of a language, specifying how to use words, morphemes, and syntax to produce understandable sentences
Morphemes
The meaningful units of language that make up words. Some whole words are morphemes (example: word); other morphemes include grammatical components that alter a word's meaning (examples:-ed, -ing, and un-)
Overregularization
Applying a grammatical rule too widely and thereby creating incorrect forms
Computer metaphor
The idea that the brain is an information-processing organ that operates, in some ways, like a computer
Concepts
Mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based on experience
Natural concepts
Mental representations of objects and events drawn from out direct experience
Prototype
An ideal or most representative example of a conceptual category
Artificial concepts
Concepts defines by rules, such as word definitions and mathematical formulas
Concept hierarchies
Levels of concepts, from most general to most specific, in which a more general level includes more specific concepts- as the concept of "animal" includes "dog," "giraffe," and "butterfly"{
Event-related potentials
Brian waves shows on the EEG in response to stimulation
Schema
A knowledge cluster or general conceptual framework that proceeds expectations about topics, events, objects, people, and situations in one's life
Script
A cluster of knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings
Algorithms
Problem-solving procedures or formulas that guarantee a correct outcome, if correctly applied
Heuristics
Cognitive strategies or "rules of thumb" used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks. Unlike algorithms, heuristics do not guarantee a correct solution
Mental set
The tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used for a precious problem
Functional fixedness
The inability to perceive a new use for an object associated with a different purpose; a form of mental set
Hindsight bias
The tendency, after learning about an event, to "second guess" or believe that one could have predicted the event in advance
Anchoring bias
A faulty heuristics caused by basing (anchoring) an estimate on completely unrelated quantity
Representativeness bias
A faulty heuristic strategy based on the presumption that once people or events are categorized, they share all the features of other members in that category
Availability bias
A faulty heuristic strategy that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled (made available) from personal experience
Creativity
A mental process that produced novel responses that contribute to the solutions of problems
Aptitudes
Innate potentialities (as contrasted with abilities acquired by learning)
Whole method
The mnemonic strategy of first approaching the material to be "as a whole," forming an impression of the overall meaning of the material. The details are alter associated with this overall impression
Distribution learning
A technique whereby the learner spaces leaning sessions over time, rather than trying to learn the material all in one study period.
Overlearning
A strategy whereby the learner continues to study and rehearse the material after it has been initially brought to mastery