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Marine Science: Marine Biology (Part 1)
Terms in this set (72)
Study of how life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter (Spontaneous generation)
Supports the theory that life began in the ocean
Organisms with favorable characteristics are more likely than those with less favorable characteristics to survive and reproduce.
Theory that the first life forms were self-replicating RNA molecules
Period in Earth's history when autotrophs broke down CO2 into O2, raising atmospheric oxygen levels to 21%, which allowed animal life to develop.
The pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.
Solutions contain equal concentrations salts on both sides of the membrane.
Solution contains a lesser concentration of salts than the solution on the other side of the membrane; water will be drawn into the cell by osmosis; will cause the cell to swell
Solution contains a greater concentration of salts than the solution on the other side of the membrane; water will be drawn out of the cell by osmosis; will cause the cell to shrink.
Active regulation of osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain water content; it keeps organism's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.
Organisms that match their body osmolarity(salinity) to their environment.
Organisms that regulate their body osmolarityby actively controlling salt con-centrationsdespite salt concentrations in the environment
Internal body temperature varies along with that of the ambient environmental temperature; dependent on environmental heat sources; relatively low metabolic rates.
Internal body temperature varies, but is elevated above ambient environmental temperatures as a result of metabolic heat production.
Internal body temperature remains relatively constant despite the ambient environmental temp-erature.
Body shape characterized by being tapered at both the head and the tail; reduces drag on fish
Organism that thrives at high pressures
The practice and science of classification.
8 Taxonomic Levels
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
Domain that includes single celled microorganisms; they are prokaryotes, have cell wall made of peptidoglycan
Domain that includes single celled microorganisms; prokaryotes; no close relationship to the bacteria, more closely related to the eukaryotes.
Domain that includes organisms with eukaryotic cells--that is, those with membranous organelles
Kingdom that includes simple eukaryotes; either unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues
Kingdom that includes multicellular eukaryotes with cell walls that contain cellulose; autotrophic photosynthesizers
Kingdom that includes multicellular eukaryotes with no cell walls; heterotrophic consumers
How Scientists Classify Organisms
Morphology, anatomical structure, biochemical structure
Evolutionary history of an organism
Diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities that are known to have a common ancestor.
Cell with no membrane-bound organelles and DNA is organized into a single circular chromosome
Cell wall component of bacteria
Gram positive bacteria
Bacteria that possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan; stain purple
Gram negative bacteria
Bacteria that have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane; stain pink or red
Rod shaped bacteria
Spiral shaped bacteria
Chains of bacteria
Clusters of bacteria
Asexual reproduction used by bacteria that results in the reproduction of a living prokaryotic cell by division into two parts which each have the potential to grow to the size of the original cell.
Horizontal gene transfer
Bacteria can incorporate genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism.
Refers to heterotrophic protists
Refers to photosynthetic protists
Stem like portion of seaweed
Gas bladder used to buoy the blades toward the surface
Leaf like photosynthetic organ; no veins like in leaves
Basal organ that anchors seaweed to solid base or substrate
Protist phylum that includes Radiolarians
Protist phylum that included Forams
Protist phylum that includes Diatoms
Protist phylum that includes Dinoflagellates
Protist phylum that includes Coccolithophores
Protist phylum that includes brown algae
Protist phylum that includes red algae
Protist phylum that includes green algae
Fucoxanthin and Chlorophyll c
Photosynthetic pigments found in exclusively in brown algae
Photosynthetic pigment found in both green algae and land plants
Protein that is commonly used by taxonomists to classify and show relatedness among organisms
Systems of water and food conducting vessels within leaves, stems, and roots of plants
Plants that can grow in saltwater
Plant genus that includes the red mangroves, which have prop roots and a molecular "pump" mechanism that allows them to remove excess salts from their cells
Plant genus that includes the black mangroves, which have pneumatophores and can expel salt from its leathery leaves.
Marine plants that grow completely underwater along shallow tropical coastlines and serve as a food source for sea turtles
Trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics & subtropics
Ratio of how far a pigment moves on a chromatogram to the distance the developer or solvent moves.
Cell wall component of a diatom
Photosynthetic pigment that allows red algae to live in deeper water
Part of the chromatography developer that does not move through the solid surface
Part of the chromatography developer that does move through the solid surface
Organism that can live in acidic environments
Organism that can live in extreme temperatures
Organism that can live in extreme pressures
Two name naming system used to identify species of organisms; includes the genus and species name; written in Latin
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