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Pharmacology NCLEX review Part 1
Terms in this set (42)
Bone-resorption inhibitor/ Biophosphonates
prevents breakdown of bone (prevents osteoclast activity); prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis
suffix for Bone-resorption inhibitor/ Biophosphonates
-dronate (Alendronate, Risedronate, Ibandronate)
Medications to treat Paget's disease (excessive bone resorption/loss)
decreases bone loss (Calcitonin- retards bone resorption and thus decreases serum calcium; Etidronate disodium- prevents rapid turnover; Meithramycin- antibiotic)
2 medications to replace ADH
vasopressin (Pitressin), desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)
antidote to mag toxicity
sodium phosphate has __ so is used to treat
has phosphorous so it treats hypercalcemia (ca and phos have inverse relationship) (Phosphor Soda & enemas)
decrease phosphorous and thus increase Calcium (sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel) & calcium acetate (PhosLo))
sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)
exchanges Na for K in GI tract, keeps Na, gets rid of K; treats hyperkalemia
suppresses cough reflex by inhibiting cough center in medulla. Examples: Dextromethorphan hydrobromide
decreases viscosity of bronchial secretions. Examples: Guaifenesin (Mucomyst, Robitussin)
widen the air passages by relaxing the bronchial smooth muscle. They are used to control symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
4 types of bronchodilators
Antileukotriene, Beta Adrenergic Agonists, Anticholinergics, Xanthine Derivatives
Bronchodilators - Antileukotriene- Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist
The release of leukotrienes causes airway constriction, increased mucus production, swelling and inflammation in the lungs. So leukotriene blockers act as a bronchodilator. Uses: Prophylactic and long-term treatment of asthma in adults and children over the age of 12. Examples are: Montelukast sodium (Singulair), Zafirlukast (Accolate), Zileuton (Zyflo).
Bronchodilators- Beta Adrenergic Agonists
Bronchodilator. Uses: Indicated for acute exacerbations of asthma, relief of bronchoconstriction due to bronchitis and emphysema, and long-term control of chronic airway disease. Examples: Terbutaline sulfate (Brethine), Albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin), and Salmeterol (Serevent). (Remember that beta receptors also increase heart rate)
Bronchodilator. Uses: Indicated for the long-term management of bronchoconstriction and bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis, asthma, COPD, and emphysema. Examples: Ipratrpium bromide (Atrovent), Tiotropium (Spiriva)
Bronchodilators- Xanthine Derivatives
Bronchodilator. Indicated for the management of mild to moderate cases of asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and COPD. No longer used as a first-line medication. Example: theophylline (Slo-Bid, Theo-Dur)
used to dissolve or breakdown mucus in the respiratory tract (Acetylcysteine)
Corticosteroids (Glucocorticoids) Inhaled
Use: prophylaxis and management of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Examples: Budesonide (Pulmicort, Rhinocort) and Fluticasone (Flonase)
Corticosteroids (Glucocorticoids) Systemic
Indicated for COPD and acute exacerbations of asthma. Examples: Prednisone (Deltasone), Methylprednisolone (Medrol, Solu-Medrol)
Indicated for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Examples: Isoniazid (INH), Rifampin (Rifadin). note- need to give vitamin B6 supplements with INH. can cause orange/ red-brown urine, sweat, tears, saliva
Increases force of myocardial contraction and slows heart rate by stimulating the vagus nerve and blocking the AV node. Uses: Indicated for the treatment of heart failure and dysrhythmias. Examples: Digoxin (Lanolin, Digitek). need to know: therapeutic digoxin levels between 0.5-2.0. hypokalemia BAD bc increases potential for toxicity. (Antidote is Digibind)
Uses: indicated for the short-term management of heart failure. Examples: Milrinone (Primacor), Inamrinone (Inocor)
Uses: Indicated for acute treatment of heart failure in patients with dyspnea at rest and/or minimal activity. Examples: Nesiritide (Natrecor).
Relaxes vascular smooth muscle; decreases venous return; decreases arterial blood pressure; reduces myocardial oxygen consumption. Uses: Indicated for the treatment of stable and unstable angina. Rapid acting forms are indicated for the management of acute angina episodes and long acting forms are used for the prevention of angina attacks. Examples: Nitroglycerin (Nitro-Bid), Isosorbide (Isordi)
Beta-adrenergic Antagonists (Beta Blockers)
Blocks beta-adrenergic receptors in heart; decreases excitability of heart; reduces cardiac workload and oxygen consumption; decreases release of renin; lowers blood pressure by reducing CNS stimuli. Uses: Indicated for the treatment of angina, particularly angina caused by exercise. Mainstay treatment for the management of hypertension, cardiac dysrhythmias, and MI. Unlabeled uses include migraines, and tachycardia associated with stage fright. Examples: Atenolol (Tenormin), Metoprolol (Lopressor), Propranolol (Inderal). (end in -olol)
Calcium Channel Blockers
Inhibits movement of calcium ions across membrane of cardiac and arterial muscle cells; results in slowed impulse conduction, depression of myocardial contractility, dilation of coronary arteries; decreases cardiac workload and energy consumption, increases oxygenation of myocardial cells. Uses: Indicated for the management of angina, hypertension and dysrhythmias. Also indicated for migraines and Raynaud's disease. Examples: Amlodipine (Norvasc), Diltiazem (Cardizem), Ranolazine (Ranexa), verapamil
Centrally acting Alpha Adrenergic Agonists
Stimulates alpha receptors in medulla, causing reduction in sympathetic action in heart; decreases rate and force of contraction, decreases CO. (work in CNS to reduce firing of sympathetic neurons -> decrease release of NE from sympathetic nerves-> decrease activation of peripheral adrenergic receptors) Uses: Antihypertensive. Management of opioid withdrawal. Examples: Clonidine (Catapres), Methyldopa (Aldomet).
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
Blocks ACE in lungs from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II (powerful vasoconstrictor); causes decreased BP, decreased aldosterone secretion, sodium and fluid loss. Uses: Indicated for hypertension, MI, and heart failure. Examples: Captopril (Capoten), Enalapril (Vasotec), Lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil), Moexpril (Univasc), Ramipril (Altace) (end in -pril)
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBS)
Blocks action of angiotensin II resulting in vasodilation. Uses: Antihypertensive, adjunctive therapy for heart failure. Potent vasodilator. Examples: Losartan (Cozaar), Olmesartan (Benicar), Valsartan (Diovan), (end in -sartan)
Relaxes smooth muscle of blood vessels, lowering peripheral resistance. Uses: Antihypertensive. Examples: Hydralazine (Apersoline), Nitroprusside (Nipride).
Alpha-1 adrenergic blockers
Selective blockade of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in peripheral blood vessels. Uses: Hypertension, BPH, Pheochromocytoma, Raynaud's disease. Examples: Doxazosin, Prazosin, Terazosin
Uses: Decreased platelet aggregation, most effective against arterial thrombi. Useful in the prevention of thrombotic stroke, TIAs, and post-MI thrombi. Examples: Aspirin, Clopidogrel (Plavix), Ticlopidine (Ticlid), Tirofiban (Aggrastat), Abciximab (ReoPro), Anagrelide Hcl (Agrylin), Eptifibatide (Integrilin), Dipyridamole (Persantine)
Uses: Treatment of venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thromboembolic complications. Prevents formation of clot or worsening of present clot. Does not dissolve clots already present. monitor aPTT. Antidote is protamine sulfate
Low molecular weight heparin, for thromboembolism. Prevents and treats DVT and pulmonary embolism. Useful in the treatment and prevention of clot formation after certain types of surgeries including hip and knee replacements.
Warfarin Sodium (Coumadin)
Primarily oral anticoagulant. Treatment of DVT, pulmonary embolism, TIA, and prophylactic for cardiac valves. Prevents formation of clot or worsening of present clot. Does not dissolve clots already present. Monitor PT and INR. Antidote is Vitamin K.
Clot busters! Work to dissolve clots following an acute MI, pulmonary embolism or acute ischemic stroke. Will dissolve any clot, including those that may serve a useful purpose. Examples: Tenecteplase (TNKase), Reteplase (Retevase), Alteplase, Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), Streptokinase, Urokinase. (most end in -ase) Antidote is Amicar.
Promotes clot formation. Useful in the prevention and treatment of excessive bleeding from hyperfibrinolysis. Example: Aminocaproic acid (Amicar)
Ferrous Sulfate, Ferrous Fumarate, Ferrous Gluconate
Indicated for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Examples: Ferrous Sulfate (Aerosol, Slow FE), Ferrous Fumarate (Femiron), Ferrous Gluconate (Fergon).
Used when oral iron is not an option for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Examples: Dexferrum, Imbed. IM/IV administration
Vitamin B12- Cyanocobalamin
Indicated for the treatment of megaloblastic anemias including Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, also known as Pernicious anemia. Examples: anacobin, nascobal.
Folic acid, vitamin B9 (Folate)
Indicated for the treatment of megaloblastic anemias associated with folic acid deficiency. Also indicated during pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects in the fetus. Example: Folacin
Erythropoetin- Stimulating Agents (ESAs)
Indicated for anemias associated with chronic renal failure, HIV infection, chemotherapy, and to decrease the need for blood transfusions in surgical patients. Examples: Epoetin alfa, Procrit, Darbepoetin alfa, Aranesp
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