60 terms

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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Respiration
Take in oxygen, rid body of carbon dioxide
Most common gas in the atmosphere
Nitrogen
Ventilation
Movement of air into the airway
External Respiration
Exchange of gases in the lungs between the blood and the air from the external atmosphere
Internal Respiration
Oxygen in the blood transported internally via the blood vessels to cells and tissues in the body
4 to 6 minutes
Length of time oxygen reserves last in the body
Bronchioles
Series of branching tubes in the lungs that transport air
Alveoli
Small air sacs at the terminal end of the lung tubes/bronchioles
Capillaries
Small blood vessels in the lungs where carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange occurs
Nares
Opening or nostrils of the nose
Vibrissae
Course nasal hairs that are a line of defense for the respiratory system
Conchae/turbinates
Small bones in the nose that aid in moistening and warming the air we breathe
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue
The tissue lining inside the nose
Goblet cells
Produce mucous in the respiratory system to act as a protective barrier
Sinuses
Hollow air-filled spaces in the skull
Pharynx
Throat
3 sections of the pharynx
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
Larynx
Voice box
Epiglottis
Lid-like structure that covers the windpipe during swallowing to prevent choking
Trachea
Windpipe
Intubation
Long-term breathing tube inserted into the lungs to aid in breathing
Ventilator
Machine used to help move air into lungs when respiration is compromised
Carina
Site where the trachea divides into the right and left lung
Greater risk of __________________ occurs in the right lung
Choking
Squamous pneumocytes (Type 1)
Site of gas exchange in the alveoli
300-600 million
Number of alveoli in the lungs
Granular Pneumocytes (Type II)
Found in alveoli, produce surfactant and perform cellular repair
Macrophages (Type III)
Cleanup cells located in the alveoli
Pores of Kohn
Openings in the alveoli that allow macrophages to move between the alveoli
Surfactant
Liquid fat found in the alveoli that keeps the alveoli sacs open
ABG
Arterial Blood Gas
Erythropoiesis
Production of red blood cells
Erythropoietin
Hormone in the body that to begin stimulation of red blood cell production
Atelectasis
Collapsing of the lungs
Mediastinum
The area of the body defined as the area between the right and left lung
Visceral Pleura
Protective layer that covers the lungs
Hilum
The space on the right and left lung where the bronchus tube enters
Cardiac impression
Concave cavity on the left lung to accommodate the space for the heart
Sternum
Breastbone
3 parts of the sternum
Manubrium, body, xiphoid process
Diaphragm
Chief breathing muscle
Tidal volume
Volume of gas in and out of the lungs during normal breathing
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Volume of air forced into lungs after normal respiration (Air you take in if going down with the Titanic)
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Volume of air exhaled after a normal respiration (Blowing up an inflatable toy)
Residual Volume
Volume of gas remaining in the lungs after forceful expiration of air
Vital Capacity
Volume of measured air the lungs can hold in a full forced inspiration and full expiration (Full in and full out)
Inspiratory Capacity
Volume of measured air that lungs hold after a full inspiration
Functional Residual Capacity
Volume of measured air remaining in the lungs after a normal respiration
Increased CO2, (Carbon Dioxide) attracts ____________
Mosquitos
Blood type that attracts mosquitos
Type O
Pneumonia
Lung infection caused by viruses and bacteria with a cough and can be deadly
Pneumothorax
Air in the thoracic cavity outside the lungs
Tuberculosis (TB)
Bacterial infection of the lungs with a high death rate
Dyspnea
Difficulty breathing
Number one cause of respiratory diseases
Smoking
Hemothorax
Blood in the lung cavity
Pleural Effusion
Excessive fluid buildup in the lung cavity
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Groups of diseases affecting the lungs
Asthma
Life-threatening condition often allergy related where the lung tubes constrict preventing breathing
Empyema
Pus in the lung cavity
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