44 terms

Unit 4

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sovereignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
territorial integrity
the right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursion from other states
boundary types
Many boundaries are natural boundaries, formed by rivers, mountains, etc. There are also political boundaries. These are often formed through war and compromise in treaties and agreements. In countries often form cultural boundaries that used to belong to a groups cultural homeland. However, countries in Africa, the Middle East and elsewhere aren't arranged by culture but politics, and Western countries turned their former colonies into nations without respect for culture.
evolution of boundaries
- legal document or treaty drawn up to specify actual points in the landscape
- cartographers put the boundary on the map
-Demarcation-boundary is actually marked on the ground w/ wall, fence, posts,... (too expensive or impractical for most borders to be demarcated)
nation
a politically organized body of people under a single government, a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
state
a politically organized body of people under a single government
nation-state
A country who's population share a common identity.
stateless nation
A nationality that is not represented by a state.
Conference of Berlin
meeting of 14 mostly European countries on how to divided up Africa amongst themselves disregarding African input or ethnic groups
mercantilism
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Peace of Westphalia
Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security
irredentism
a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
enclave
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
exclave
A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.
theocracy
government run by religious leaders
landlocked
surrounded by land; cut off from the sea
centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
centrifugal
Forces that tend to divide a country-such as international religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
unitary state
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
federal state
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
core states
Major powers, leadership states, advanced countries
periphery states
Least developed states that are exploited by other states
semi periphery states
A 'buffer' between the core and the periphery states.
tribalism
a situation in which people feel greater allegiance and loyalty to their own ethnic group than to a state as a whole
colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
neocolonialism
A new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
electoral geography
The study of the interactions among space, place, and region and the conduct and results of elections.
gerrymandering
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
reapportionment
the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census
majority minority district
a gerrymandered voting district that improves the chances of minority candidates by making selected minority groups the majority within the district, A congressional district created to include a majority of minority voters; ruled constitutional so long as race is not the main factor in redistricting.
forward capital
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
primate city
A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
median-line principle
The system of drawing a political boundary midway between two states' coastlines when the territorial seaas or EEZ are narrower than twice the standard or adopted limit.
EEZ
Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources.
law of the sea
laws establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the Earth's waters and their resources.
devolution
the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
supranationalism
a venture involving 3 or more national states political economic or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
geopolitics
a foreign policy based on a consideration of the strategic locations or products of other lands
gateway state
A state, by virtue of its border location between geopolitical power cores, that absorbs and assimilates cultures and traditions of its neighbors without being dominated by them.
Nunavut
an Arctic territory in northern Canada created in 1999 and governed solely by the Inuit
shatterbelt
A large, strategically located region that is occupied by a number of conflicting states and is caught between the conflicting interests of adjoining Great Powers; a zone of chronic political splintering and fracturing.
Balkanization
process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
annexation
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.
confederation
a joining of several groups for a common purpose
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