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theory- Freud

1st to study the emotional aspect of human development. emphasized on spending time with the child in the first few years of a childs life, early life experiences in personality development, unconscious motivation

theory- Erickson

believed people experience 8 life conflicts in life. 1. trust or mistrust, 2. time of shame or doubt, 3. initiative vs. guilt

theory- Piaget

cognitive development- 4 stages. 1. sensory motor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, 4. formal operational

social learning (john watson)-punisher

any consequence of an act that suppresses that act or decreases the probability of the act.

social learning (john watson)-reinforcer

any consequence of an act that increases probability that the act will reoccur

ethological theories

focus on inborn responses- typical of the same species, biologically programed

sensitive period

times in which optimal development occurs. ex talking, walking, bonding, eating

parenting styles

authoritative, coercive, permissive

authoritative parenting

controlling/demanding, warm/ responsive

permisive parenting

uncontrolling/undemanding, warm/ responsive

coercive parenting

controlling/demanding, aloof/unresponsive

boyd k. pakers response on parenting

concentrate on self- improve self, before you can improve your child

authoritative parenting outcomes

self-esteem, better academics, social skills, connection w/parent, good peer relations, problem solve. more open to parent direction

characteristics of authoritative

connection (child/parent relations), autonomy (building choices for child), regulation (putting limits)

authoritative: regulation

5 steps- keep cool head, quickly asses your objective, emphasis on teaching, if needed give appropriate punishment, show love


teaching opportunities, random experiences, setting the example, positive/uplifting communication

uninvolved parenting style

(neglectful), aloof/unresponsive, uncontrolling/ undemanding

scoresby's 4 possible reasons of behavior

child lacks knowledge, child development is due to the age stage, child acts in an unfulfilled need, childs behavior is due to environment


greater verbal abilities, show faster early language development, more fearful, more effective senders of emotional information


greater visual/ spatial abilities, more developmental problems, in adolescence better in mathematical reasoning, more physically active, show more physical aggression, less compliant to demands of authority figures, greater risk takers

no difference between girls/ boys

social, analytical, have more achievement motivation

sacred duty of parents

rear children in love and righteousness, provide for physical and spiritual needs, teaxh them to love and serve, observe the commandments of good and be good law-abiding citizens

children are entitled to

birth within the bonds of matrimony, and to be reared by a father and a mother who honor marital vows with complete fidelity

parenting pyramid

correction ( smallest part), teaching, parent/child relationship, good husband/ wife relationship, personal way of being

coercion comes with a cost

diminishing of children's abilities to learn how to regulate their own behavior from within, social and communication competencies, children externalizing behavior

traditions are a source of

strength, identity, connection between generations, allow families to examine themselves and thier customs, faith and meaning

native-american families

view parents in the role of supporting rather than forcing development, grandparents may be primary caregivers, other adults in child's life is the disciplinarian- parents have enjoyable relationships with child, self -reliance is stressed, not overly concerned with development milestones, children do not ask parental permission to engage in daily tasks.

hispanic-american families

strongly concerned about maintaining culture and language, strong identification w/ family, parent-child relationship is more important than marital, fathers rarely are seen as head of household, mothers give primary care to children and the household.

african-american families

parents tend more to restrictiveness and immediate compliance, power assertive, use physical punishment, utilize informal support networks, spend large amounts of time with relatives and friends, other african-american adults other than family feel a responsibility to parent guide children in community- leading to informal adoption

asian- american families

fathers stongest bond is often to his mom, men are usually the financial provider and disciplinarian, women are charged with child-rearing responsibilities and maintain close relations with child, strongest family bond is between mom and son, son takes care of younger sibilings

cowan and cowan's list of practical tips

share expectations, make time to talk to each other, when conflict arises discuss one problem at a time, don't ignore intimacy, take advantage of reality checks w/ friends, work to find the delicate balance

4 components of infant care giving

nurturant, material, social, didactic

nurturant caregiving

meeting the physical requirements of the infant.

material caregiving

providing for and organizing the infant's physical world, including toys, stimulation, and limits on physical freedom.

social caregiving

expressing a variety of visual, verbal, affective, and physical behaviors and participating in interpersonal exchanges.

didactic caregiving

stimulating infants to engage and understand the environment

zone of proximal development

the distance between the child's actual development and the child's potential development


effective adult support as children work on tasks that teach culturally valued concepts and skills. 1. by adjusting the task so demands on the child at any given moment are appropriately challenging 2. tailoring the degree of adult intervention to the child's current learning needs.

combating the myth

"parents don't matter"- but parents really do matter

benefits to having a father in the home

core aspects of children's stability, self-confidence, self-regulation, and self-identities, provide daughters with stable relationship with non-exploitive adult male who loves them,

behavioral genetics

comparison between genetically related verses adoptive relatives and genetically related individuals reared apart- studies suggest that there may be significant genetic influence for externalizing problems

which things will see you through? (removing barriers article)

persistent faith in the savior and obedience will see you through hardships to greater blessings

research theories

family system= suggests that relationships have considerable continuity over time. family life-cycle= assumes that families, like individuals have predictable stages they go through

decline in marriage satisfaction

after the honeymoon

stage of marriage crucial to developing satisfying relationship

first few months and years

Sparing the rod

Failing to discipline and spoiling child

Mechanistic view and example

A theory that chooses one side or the other. Example: Behaviorism is on the nurture side

Organismic approach and example

A view modeled on living systems such as plants or animals rather than machines. Example: Children need nourishment and care like plants

How authoritative parents find answers to parenting concerns.

Heavenly Father gives us a perfect example, commandments, outlines limits and boundries, and warmth and support.

3 sections of authoritative child-rearing.

Connection, autonomy granting, and regulation.

Philisophical view that people are innately evil vs. LDS

LDS perspective is that little children are alive in Christ and every spirit of man was innocent in the beginning.

Blank slate/tabula rasa philisophical view vs. LDS

LDS perspective is that individuals have agency to choose their own destiny.

Philisophical view that children are innately good vs. LDS

LDS perspective is that every individual has a divine nature, destiny, and spiritual gifts. Parents have the responsibility to teach their children right from wrong.

Thomas and Chess (The Nature Part of Nurture)

Children actively seek out experiences that provide a good "fit" with their temperamental predispositions. or children passively fit in

Brigham Young and parenting quote

study each child and parent them according to individual differences.

observational learning (bandora)

imitating what we learn- watching others

contextual view and example

views children as active entities whose developmental paths represent a continuous dynamic interplay between internal and external influences. (nature and nurture)

porter article

the more the child goes against culture norms the more the parents are authoritarian

vygotsky's collaborative learning

children of same age learning hands on together

how to promote autonomy and connection

clear limits with prompt follow through, redirection and offering alternative strategies, planning and predisposing, restitution in rehearsal, imposing consequences, communicating positively

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