area

the amount of surface covered by the figure; measured in square units

bar graph

a graph made up of rectangular bars that extend upward or lengthwise; the height of each bar corresponds to one number in the data set; the higher the bar, the greater the number; used to display numerical data given in categories

base

The number that is going to be raised to a power (exponent). In the example above, 2 is the base.

circumference

the distance around a circle

cube

a rectangular solid made up of squares; the length, width, and height of a cube are equal

estimate

an approximate answer

exponent

a number that shows how many times the base is used as a factor in a product. In the expression 8² the 2 is the exponent, which tells us to multiply 8 by itself twice.

fraction

a way of showing parts of a whole; made up of two numbers, the numerator and the denominator

improper fractions

A fraction greater than or equal to one. The numerator is equal to or greater than its denominator (examples: 9/7; 10/3)

line graph

graph made up of points that are connected by line segments; often used to display data over a period of time

mean

the average value of a data set

median

The middle value of a data set listed in order

mixed numbers

A number containing both a whole number and a fraction (examples: 1⅓; 9⅞)

mode

the item that occurs most often in a data set

order of operations

the set of rules agreed upon by mathematicians for finding the value of arithmetic expressions - PEMDAS

1. Do operations within parentheses.

2. Do exponents and square roots.

3. Do multiplication and division.

4. Do addition and subtraction.

1. Do operations within parentheses.

2. Do exponents and square roots.

3. Do multiplication and division.

4. Do addition and subtraction.

percent

a means of expressing a number as part of a whole; a ratio that compares a number to 100; the word percent means "of 100"

product

The answer to a multiplication problem

quotient

The answer to a division problem

rounding

Rounding means reducing the digits in a number while trying to keep its value similar. This is the common method:

* Decide which is the last digit to keep

* Increase it by 1 if the next digit is 5 or more (this is called rounding up)

* Leave it the same if the next digit is less than 5 (this is called rounding down)

* Decide which is the last digit to keep

* Increase it by 1 if the next digit is 5 or more (this is called rounding up)

* Leave it the same if the next digit is less than 5 (this is called rounding down)

square root

the number that can be squared to get the original number (what number times itself equals the original number?)

sum

The answer to an addition problem, the result of adding two or more numbers.

whole numbers

The numbers {0, 1, 2, 3, ...} etc. There is no fractional, decimal or negative numbers.

place value

The value of a digit based on its position within a number

odd number

not evenly divisible by two

even number

evenly divisible by two

consecutive numbers

numbers that follow one after the other in order, from least to greatest

prime number

a number divisible evenly by only itself and one

factor

a number that divides evenly into another number

addition

the sum or total of numbers

subtraction

the difference between numbers

regrouping

To move a group of numbers from one place value to another to solve a math problem.

multiplication

the product of numbers

division

breaking numbers into groups

powers

The power of a number shows you how many times to use the number in multiplication, It is written as a small number (an exponent) to the right and above the base number ( in the example above, 8 is to the second power - 8 x 8)

associative property

The associative property is:

* It doesn't matter how you group the numbers when you add.

* It doesn't matter how you group the numbers when you multiply.

(In other words it doesn't matter which you calculate first.)

Example addition: (6 + 3) + 4 = 6 + (3 + 4)

Because 9 + 4 = 6 + 7 = 13

Example multiplication: (2 × 4) × 3 = 2 × (4 × 3)

8 × 3 = 2 × 12 = 24

* It doesn't matter how you group the numbers when you add.

* It doesn't matter how you group the numbers when you multiply.

(In other words it doesn't matter which you calculate first.)

Example addition: (6 + 3) + 4 = 6 + (3 + 4)

Because 9 + 4 = 6 + 7 = 13

Example multiplication: (2 × 4) × 3 = 2 × (4 × 3)

8 × 3 = 2 × 12 = 24

distributive property

The distributive property means that you get the same answer when you multiply a number by a group of numbers added together as when you do each multiplication separately

Example: 3 × (2 + 4) = 3×2 + 3×4

So the "3" can be "distributed" across the "2+4" into 3 times 2 and 3 times 4.

Example: 3 × (2 + 4) = 3×2 + 3×4

So the "3" can be "distributed" across the "2+4" into 3 times 2 and 3 times 4.

commutative property

The order in which two numbers are added or multiplied does not change their sum or product, respectively (e.g., 2 + 3 = 3 + 2, or 4 × 7 = 7 × 4).

congruent

The same shape and size. Two shapes are congruent if you can turn, flip and/or slide one so it fits exactly on the other.

numerator

The number above the bar in a fraction (in ⅞, the 7 is the numerator)

denominator

The number below the bar in a fraction (in ⅞, the 8 is the denominator)

perimeter

The distance around a figure (pretend that you are building a fence)

divisor

The number by which the a number is being divided in a division problem (in each of ⅞, 7÷8, '8' is the divisor)

dividend

The number that is divided in a division problem (in each of ⅞, 7÷8, '7' is the divisor)

range

The range of a set of the numbers is the highest number minus the lowest number.

similar

In Geometry, two shapes are similar if the only difference is size (and possibly the need to turn or flip one around).