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Law passed by congress in 1862 that offered ownership of 160 acres of designated public lands to any citizen who lived on and improved the land for 5 years
Scottish-born industrialist who made a fortune in steel and believed the rich had a duty to act for the public benefit
the process of bringing together into a single company several of the activities in the process of creating a manufactured product, such as the acquiring of raw materials, the manufacturing of products, and the marketing, selling and distributing of finished goods process
the philosophical argument inspired by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, that competition in human society produced "survival of the fittest" and therefore benefited society as a whole; it opposed efforts to regulate competitive practices
National labor union
federation of trade unions and reform societies organized at Baltimore in 1866; it lasted only six years but helped push through a law limiting government employees to an eight-hour workday
system of appointment to government jobs that lets the winter in an election distribute nearly all appointive government jobs to loyal party members; also called spoil system
organization of farmers that combined social activities with education about new methods of farming and cooperative economic efforts; formally called the patrons of Husbandry
state laws establishing stranded freight and passenger rate on railroads, passed in several states in the 1970s in response to lobbying by Grange and other groups; including merchants
great railways strike of 1877
largely spontaneous strikes by railroad workers, triggered by wage cuts
U.S secretary of states under Lincoln and Johnson, a former abolitionist who had expansionist views and arranged the purchase of Alaska from Russia
announcement by President James Monroe in 1823 that the Western Hemisphere was off-limits for future European colonial expansion
prominent Atlanta newspaper publisher and leading proponent of the concept of a New South
Lakota leader who resisted white encroachment in the Black Hills and fought at the Little Big Horn River in 1876; he was killed by U.S. soldiers
Nez perce chief who led his people in an attempt to escape to Canada in 1877; after a grueling journey they were forced to surrender and were exiled to Indian teritory
Booker T Washington
former slave who became an educator and founded Tuskegee institute, a leading black educational institution; he argued southern African Americans to accept disfranchisement and segregation for the time being
provision in Louisiana law that permitted a person to vote if his father or grandfather had been entitled to vote in 1867; designed to permit white men to vote who might otherwise be disfranchised by laws targeting blacks. often applied to any law that permit some people to evade current legal provisions based on past pratice
civil rights cases
a series of cases that came before Supreme Court in 1883, in which the Court ruled that private companies could legally discriminate against individuals based on race
Plessy v ferguson
Supreme Court decision in 1896 that upheld a Louisiana law requiring the segregation of railroad facilities on the grounds that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under the 14th amendment
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