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Apologia Biology 2nd edition Module 1 Vocabulary


The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism's life functions


The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life


the sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks


the process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food


organisms that eat only plants


organisms that eat only organisms other than plants


organisms that eat both plants and other organisms


organisms that produce their own food


organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food


organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms


organisms that are able to make their own food


organisms that depend on other organisms for their food


special structures that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their internal or external environment

asexual reproduction

reproduction accomplished by a single organism

sexual reproduction

reproduction that requires two organisms


the process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring


an abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents


an educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question


a hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data

scientific law

a theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data


living creatures that are too small to see the naked eye


the idea that long ago, very simple life forms spontaneously appeared through chemical reactions

prokaryotic cell

a cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles

eukaryotic cell

a cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles


a unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units


the science of classifying organisms

binomial nomenclature

naming an organism with its genus and species name

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