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CHAPTER 4 SOCIAL COGNITION AND PERSON PERCEPTION
Terms in this set (35)
Understand the different impression formation theories (central traits, algebraic, schema).
- central traits
: Traits that exert a disproportionate influence on people's overall impressions, causing them to assume the presence of other traits
- implicit personality
: A type of schema people use to organize and make sense of which personality traits and behaviors go together.
What factors determine the use of a particular schema?
Priming makes memories, categories, and schemas more accessible.
Schemas are organized knowledge structures that:
provide theories about how the social world operates,
hasten information processing and decision making, and
influence what information is remembered and later recalled
When do we make attributions?
we use it to search for explanations of social events.
Distinguish between internal and external attributions.
An internal attribution (also called person attribution) consists of any explanation that locates the cause as being internal to the person, such as person- ality traits, moods, attitudes, abilities, or effort. An external attribution (also called situ- ation attribution) consists of any explanation that locates the cause as being external to the person under scrutiny, such as the actions of others, the nature of the situation, or luck.
Know Jones Correspondence Inference Theory.
an inference to which the actor's action corresponds, or is indicative of a stable personal characteristic. Jones and Davis argued that people have a preference for making dispositional attributions (that is, those that are internal and stable), and that external attributions are merely default options, made only when internal causes cannot be found.
Give examples of the fundamental attribution error.
Describe the actor-observer effect.
We tend to attribute our own behavior to external causes while attributing the behavior of others to internal factors
What are heuristics and when do we use them? (e.g., representative, availability, etc.)
Heuristics allow quick judgments with minimal cognitive effort but can cause biased and inac- curate judgments.
-The representativeness heuristic involves judging the category membership of things based on how closely they match the proto- type for that category.
- The availability heuristic involves judging the probability of an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of it.
-The anchoring and adjustment heuristic involves being biased toward the starting value or anchor in making quantitative judgments.
What is a cognitive miser?
What is the confirmation bias?
The tendency to seek information that supports our beliefs while ignoring disconfirming information
Give an example of the base rate fallacy.
Explain the illusory correlation.
Know about the false consensus effect.
How does belief in a just world benefit us?
What is counterfactual thinking and how is it related to emotional responses to events?
involves evaluating events by imagining alternative versions or out- comes.
The most representative member of a category is called the category ___.
A script ___.
describes how a series of events is likely to occur in a well known situation
A girl might choose a career as a nurse if she associated being female with being nurturing and the nursing profession as a nurturing one. This shows the effect of ____.
Schemas influence all of the following except ___.
Time-saving mental shortcuts that reduce complex judgments to simple rules are called.
If you meet someone who likes books, writes poetry, and quotes Shakespeare and infer that she is more likely to be an English major rather than a computer science major, you have just employed the ____.
People tend to think that violent crime is a growing problem despite statistics that indicate crime is actually declining. If this is due to seeing a lot of violent crime on TV and being easily able to remember these events, this belief may be due to the ____.
People are more likely to use heuristics when they ___.
have little other knowledge or information to use in making a decision
After a tsunami nearly caused a meltdown at the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan, some people said that they just knew that building a nuclear plant so close to the ocean was a really bad idea. Such thinking might be best explained by ___.
the hindsight bias
People may engage in counterfactual thinking in order to ____.
make themselves feel better following a negative outcome
Thought suppression ____.
is a good example of explicit and implicit cognition working in tandem
Person perception involves ____.
building a working model of a person and using it in our interactions with him or her
The sending and receiving of information using gestures , expressions, vocal cues, and body movements is called ___.
People percieve others as more warm and welcoming when their body shape is ___.
Females are significantly more adept than males in
decoding nonverbal information
Studies of implicit personality theories have shown that ____.
they can be affected by the situational context in which they are used
Warren buffet once donated $37 billion to Bill and Melinda Gates charitable foundation, If our explanation for this is that Buffet is a nice man, we have just made an ___.
For something to the cause of a particular behavior, it must be present when the behavior occurs and absent when it does not occur, which is called ___.
the covariation principle
We tend to attribute our own behavior to external causes while attributing the behavior of others to internal factors, a phenomenon known as the ___.
actor observer effect
When one makes internal, stable, global attribution for failure, he or she is exhibiting ___.
a pessimistic explanatory style
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 4: Social Perception
Chapter 3 - The Social Self
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
chapter 4 social cog and person perception
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